BRIEF INFORMATION ABOUT AD LAND RECORDS

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muhammadmohsinali
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BRIEF INFORMATION ABOUT AD LAND RECORDS

Post by muhammadmohsinali » Sun Nov 24, 2013 1:28 pm

BRIEF INFORMATION ABOUT AD LAND RECORDS

 The Land Reforms Act, 1977 came into force on 9 January, 1977.
 The Provincial Assembly passed amendments to the Land Revenue Act, 1967 in March 2007.
 The Patwar system was first introduced during the short but eventful rule of Sher Shah Suri and the system was further enhanced by Akbar.
 The first significant attempt at redistributive land reforms was undertaken by the military regime of Ayub Khan in 1959.
 Land Records Management & Information Systems is a major project of the Government of Punjab being executed by the Board of Revenue with financial assistance of World Bank.
 The first computerize project, named as Participatory Information System (PIS) was initiated in the Baluchistan.
 The Support to Devolution Reforms in Balochistan Project (SDRB, formerly known as Baluchistan Trial District Management Project), funded by UNDP, aimed to support decentralisation in Balochistan Province.
 "Tahsil" meaning "revenue generating; collection" and "dar", Persian for "holder of a position", together meaning tax collector. "Tahsil" derived from Arabic.
 There are two principal crop seasons in Pakistan namely “Kharif”, with sowing beginning in April and harvest between October and December and “Rabi” beginning in October-December and ending in April-May. Rice, sugar cane, cotton, maize and millet are Kharif crops, while wheat, gram, tobacco, rapeseed, barley and mustard are Rabi crops.
 A village’s common land is called Shamilot.
 Genealogical tree of the land owner s is called Shajra Nasb.
 For mutation process Halqua Patwari resorts in prescribed form called P-1
 Certified copies of land records can be obtained by applying in form CA-1.
 Amalgamation and redistribution of all or any of the land to reduce the number of plots in the holding consolidation. Consolidation also called Chak Bandi.
 The Court Fee Act, 1870 is a fiscal enactment with primary object to secure the revenue. Court fee is charged at the rate of 7.5% of the value of suit subject to maximum of Rs.15, 000/. All revenue and civil suits with value of less than Rs.25, 000/- are exempt from court fee.
 Khasra Girdawri is conducted by Patwari in the months of October, February and April. The first six monthly inspection of crops in the month of October called Kharif Girdawri ; the second inspection of crops in the month of February is called Rabbi Girdawri and Girdawri done during the month of April is called Zaid Girdawri.
 Punjab Assembly passed The Punjab Land Revenue (Abolition) Act 1998 on 6th February, 1998. This Act was published in Punjab Gazette on 24 February, 1998. There are 197 pages in The Punjab Land Revenue (Abolition) Act 1998. Section 2 & 3 of The Punjab Land Revenue (Abolition) Act 1998 have abolished the Land revenue
 Land which remained unsown for eight successive harvests is called Banjar qadim.
 Land which remained unsown for four successive harvests is called Banjar jaded.
 Senior Member Board of Revenue is Chairman of Board of Revenue or Chief Land Commissioner.
 Kanugos, Patwaris, Kotars and Lambardars are called Village Officers.
 A portion of land of which the area is separately entered under an indicative number in the Record of Rights is called Khasra Number.
 Cultivated land is classified into Seven types.
 The register of crops inspection is called Khasra Girdawari.
 The Periodical record is prepared once in every Four years.
 Khewat is the name of list of owner’s holding.
 Land administration is “the regulatory framework, institutional arrangements, systems and processes that encompass the determination, allocation, administration and information concerning land.
 The Land Administration System (LAS) in Pakistan is organized on the traditional system of Land registers and maps.
 Khatauni is prepared by patwari.
 Record of Khatauni is kept under the custody of Halqua patwari.
 Lord Dufferin was the Viceroy of India at the time of enforcement of Punjab Tenancy Act, 1887.
 A person liable for an arrear of Land Revenue is called Defaulter.
 An area for which a separate record-of-Rights has been made is called Estate.
 A piece of cloth on which the village map is drawn showing the position and boundaries of every field is know as Shajra Parcha.
 Lal Kitab is prepared for each Estate. Village note book is also known asLal Kitab.
 Sher Shah Suri introduced land record system in subcontinent first time. Land record system was introduced in subcontinent in 1540.
 Khatauni register is used for all persons cultivating or otherwise occupying land in a village.Khatauni contains entries regarding Ownership, Cultivation and Various rights in land.
 Akbar's dahsala system is credited to Raja Todar Mal.
 Raja Todar Mal served as a revenue officer under Sher Shah Suri.
 British redesigned land record and revenue system in 1848.
 The estimated average annual surplus produce of estate or group of estates remaining after deduction of the ordinary expenses of cultivation is called Net Assets.
 Ghalla Bakhshi (Crop-sharing): In some areas it was called bhaoli and batai.
 The share was decided when the crop was still standing in the fields, and a division of the field was marked is called Khet batai.
 The crop was cut and stacked in heaps without separating grain and a division of crop in this form was made? Lang batai
 The word kankut is derived from the words kan and kat. Kan denotes grain while kat means to Estimate.
 Sher Shah Suri had established a Rai or per bigha yield for lands which were under continuous cultivation.
 "If the peasant does not have the strength to bear Zabti, the practice of taking a third of the crop as revenue is followed."
 The statement of customs respecting rights or liabilities in the estate is called Wajib-ul-Arz.
 The report for mutation to the Patwari must be made within time of three months.
 What is the penalty for encroachment on any village road? imprisonment for three months
 The Board of Revenue is the custodian of the rights of Land holders.
 Ryotwari system was introduced by Sher Shah Suri for purpose of Land revenue. The revenue department during Sher Shah Suri was headed by a Wazir.
 In the absence of fixation of inspection date by Board of Revenue, the inspection of Kharif harvest shall commence on1st October.
 In the absence of fixation of inspection date by Board of Revenue, the inspection of Rabi harvest shall commence on1st March.
 In the absence of fixation of inspection date by Board of Revenue the inspection of Extra Rabi (Zaid Rabi) harvest shall commence on 15th March.
 A village note book or Lal Kitab shall be prepared for each Estate.
 A portion of crop which has failed to come to maturity is called Kharaba.
 Board of Revenue Department maintained the land record in Pakistan.
 Board of Revenue Departmen is the controlling authority in all matters connected with the administration of land, collection of government dues including land taxes, land revenue, preparation of land records and other matters relating thereto.
 Lal Kitab comprises following statements Annual area, annual corps and annual revenue account, Annual transfer of land and Annual sales and mortgages, assessment.
 Fixing the amount of and imposing land revenue upon an estate is called Assessment.
 Intiqal is the vernacular word for ‘mutation’.
 A group of estates forming a sub division of a district or Tehsil is called Pargana.
 Akbar changed to a decentralised system of annual assessment, but this resulted in corruption among local officials and was abandoned in 1580.Akbar replaced old revenue system with a system called Dahsala.
 In Pakistan how many books and registers are used for land record? 190 million
 In Pakistan how many land owners are there?50 million
 No changes can be made in this record-set till next settlement which is normally carried out after every 30-35 years.
 Field Book contains the details of measurement of each field e.g. its length, breadth, diagonal detail, and worked out total area.
 The work of Patwari is supervised by a Kanungo.The work of Kanungo is supervised by a Naib tehsildar and Tehsildar.
 How many registers are being used by patwari? 17
 The mutation register is also known as the Register Dakhil Kharij.
 The shape of land measurement or survey shall be based on square system or rectangulation.
 The khewat is the number of owner's holdings which should be arranged in the order in which the names of owners are given in the village? genealogical tree
 In the case of towns where the genealogical trees are not in existence, the order of khewat number is governed by Khasra Numbers.
 Jamabandi are kept under the custody of Patwari.
 khasra girdhawari register is used for harvest inspections.
 Certified copies of land records like Khatauni/Jamabandi & Kharsa Gurdhawari can be obtained by any person of any revenue record available in the office of Tehsildar.

 Jamabandi is a document prepared as part of record-of-right of all persons owning land in a village according to Punjab Land Record Manual. Jamabandi contains entries regarding ownership, cultivation and various rights in land.
 Field Map shows all the fields, duly measured and numbered in a Village.
 What is Khata? Holding of a landlord
 Collector can determine that what lands are included within the site of a town or village.
 The periodical record is prepared once in every four years is called.
 A Collector cannot review the orders of his predecessor-in-office without first obtaining the sanction of Commissioner.
 The mutation register referred to in section 41, sub-section (3) of the Act is also known as the Register Dakhil Kharij.
 The Board or Revenue itself is subject to the administrative control of the Provincial government.
 Maintenance of Records of rights in cities and towns is a function of Board of Revenue.
 Survey number is also called as Khasra Number.
 During Akbar period the process of land revenue collection has Two stages. Akbar's dahsala system is credited to Raja Todar Mal. Akbar replaced old revenue system with a system called Dahsala.
 The Persian term for land revenue during the Mughal period was mal and mal wajib.
 Record of Khatauni is kept in the custody of: Halqua patwari.
 Under the new system of Akbar, revenue was calculated as one-third of the average produce of the previous 10 years, to be paid to the state in cash.
 Major Functions of the Revenue Department are collection of land revenue, transaction of land, maintenance of record of rights, conduct of girdawari, decision of cases and appointment as local commission.
 Which register is used for harvest inspections? khasra girdhawari
 The land record data is maintained at Tehsil offices whereby record sets are developed at the time of Settlement.
 Field Map shows all the fields, duly measured and numbered in a Village.
 For mutation any person must acquire any right in estate through Inheritance or Gift, Purchase and Mortgage.
 Patwari is a person acquiring any right in an estate as a land-owner should report for mutation.
 Board of Revenue can confer on any person the powers of Assistant Collector.
 A Collector cannot review the orders of his predecessor-in-office without first obtaining the sanction of Commissioner.
 What is meant by “Girdawari”? Inspection of Harvest
 Register of crops inspection is Khasra Girdawari.
 Assistant Collectors of the Second grade is the lowest authority in the classification of Revenue Officers.
 Local revenue administration of a Division has been entrusted to Commissioner.
 Assessment shall remain in force for a period of 25 years.
 When the period of Kharif crop starts in Pakistan? May and June
 What do you mean by Ret? Sand
 Sarsahi is a unit of Area.
 Sher Shah Suri had established for per bigha yield for lands which were under continuous cultivation is called Rai.
 The rai was based on 3 rates.
 The work of Halqa patwari is supervised by a field Kanungo, whose main duties are General Supervision over Patwari, Supervision over Village Maps and Checking of patwari's records and statistics.
 All the Mussavis of a village are drawn up conjointly on a cloth (Lattha) for day-to-day use by the Patwari which is called Shajra Kishtwar.
 Mussavi is developed at the time of Settlement.
 The Government of the Punjab can confer on any person the powers of a Commissioner or Collector.
 Village Officer’s Cess can be imposed at such rate not exceeding five percent of the Land Revenue.
 Two types of Records are present in Land Revenue Act 1967.
 Dam means Grain; What is bandi? It is fixing or determining anything
 Land revenue is the revenue of the nature of a rent charged by the state as Overlord of the land.
 The revenue department during Sher Shah Suri was headed by a wazir, who is responsible for all finances and management of jagir and inam lands
 Akbar's dahsala system is credited to Raja Todar Mal, who also served as a revenue officer under Sher Shah Suri
 The Persian term for land revenue during the Mughal rule was mal and mal wajib. Kharaj was not in regular use.
 The process of land revenue collection has two stages: (a) Assessment (tashkhis/jama) (b) Actual collection (hasil).
 Assessment was made to fix the state demand. On the basis of this demand, actual collection was done separately for kbarif and rabi crops.
 Under the Mughals assessment was separately made for kharif and rabi crops. After the assessment was over a written document called patta, qaul or paul-e-qarar was issued in which the amount or the rate of the revenue demand was mentioned.
 Under the new system of Akbar, revenue was calculated as one-third of the average produce of the previous ten years, to be paid to the state in cash.
 The structure of the revenue administration was set out by the latter in a detailed memorandum submitted to the Emperor Akbar in 1582-83
 The Mughals used the mansabdar system to generate land revenue. The emperor would grant revenue rights to a mansabdar in exchange for promises of soldiers in wartime
 In kankut, at first, the field was measured either by means of a rope or by pacing.
 Sher Shah had established a rai or per bigha yield for lands which were under continuous cultivation (polaj), or those land which very rarely allowed to lie fallow (parauti).
 The rai was based on three rates, representing good, middling and low yields and one third of the sum of these was appropriated as land revenue.
 Akbar adopted Sher Shah's rai. Akbar introduced his so-called karori experiment and appointed karoris all aver North India in 1574-75.
 "If the peasant does not have the strength to bear zabti, the practice of taking a third of the crop as revenue is followed."This was an expensive method as a cess of one dam per bigha known as zabitana was given to meet the costs towards the maintenance of the measuring party;and Ijara syrtem or revenue farming war another feature of the revenue system of that time.
 In 1574-75, the office of karori was created.The karori was appointed by the diwan of the province.
 The next important revenue official was amin. The office of amin was created during Shah Jahan's reign. His main function was to assess the revenue. He, too, was appointed by the diwan. He was responsible jointly with the karori and faujdar for the safe transit of the collected revenue. The faujdar of the province kept a vigilant eye on the activities of amin and karori .
 Qanungo was the local revenue official of the pargana, and generally belonged to one of the accountant castes. It was a hereditary post, but an imperial order was essential for the nomination of each new person.
 The qanungoo was paid 1% of the total revenue as remuneration, but Akbar started paying them salary.
 The Chaudhari distributed and stood surety for the repayment of the taqavi loans.
 Under Sher Shah, Shiqqdar was the incharge of revenue collection and maintained law and order.
 The muqaddam and patwari were village level officials.
 The former was the village headman. In lieu of his services; he was allowed 2.5 percent of the total revenue collected by him.,
 The patwari was to maintain records of the village land, the holdings of the individual cultivators, variety of crops grown and details about fallow land.
 A tehsildar is a revenue administrative officer in Pakistan in charge of obtaining taxation from a tehsil.
 The term is of imperial Mughal origin made of "tahsil", an Islamic administrative derived from Arabic, meaning "revenue generating; collection" and "dar", Persian for "holder of a position", together meaning tax collector.
 The deputy of a tehsildar is known as a naib tehsildar.
 During British rule the tehsildar was a stipendiary officer of the government to raise revenue.
 In Pakistan a Tehsildar is responsible for obtaining revenue from a Tehsil, or Taluka (as called in Sindh), which is then used by the district government.
 A Tehsil is a sub-division of a District and will have multiple smaller administrative units called 'Mouza' or 'Deh'. Typically a district will contain multiple Tehsils.
 Tehsildar is a gazetted officer (class I)
 TEHSILDAR is a principal Agent of Deputy Commissioner.He Collect of Govt Dues: Abiana,,Agriculture Income Tax, Land Tax, Ushar, Local Rate, Stamp Duty – Mutation Fees and Arrears. His other functions are Attestation of Mutation, Inspection of Khasra Gardawari, Inspection of Preparation of Revenue Records, Disposal of Partition Cases, Execution of Court Decrees, Conduct Inquiries of other official and private cases, Attestation of Domicile, Duty Magistrate / Price Magistrate,Special Duty (Flood, Earthquake etc), Special Inquiries, Duty in census and With election commission of Pakistan, Acquisition of Land for Govt from the public through land acquisition act, Reporting and Besides it, he decides the Lambardari cases.
 The post of Additional Deputy Commissioner has been created to assist the Deputy Commissioner in his day-to-day working. The Additional Deputy Commissioner enjoys the same powers as that of Deputy Commissioner under the rules.Functions of Additional Deputy Commissioner, With a view to lighten the enormously increasing workload of the Deputy Commissioner, the post of Additional Deputy Commissioner was created in the year 1979. He has been vested with the following powers under the various Acts-within the limits of the district:-As Collector under the following Acts
o The Punjab Land Revenue Act,1887.
o The Punjab Occupancy Of Tenants(Vesting of Proprietary Rights)Act,1952.
o The Punjab Tenancy Act,1887.
o The Land Acquisition Act,1894.
o The Punjab Restitution of Mortgage Land Act,1938.
o The Punjab Village Common Land(Regulation) Act,1961.
o The Indian Stamp Act,1899.
 Tehsildars are appointed by the Financial Commissioner, Revenue and Naib Tehsildar by the Commissioner of the Division. Their duties within Tehsil /Sub Tehsil are almost similar and manifold (except that partition cases are decided by Tehsildar). They enjoy the powers of Executive Magistrate, Assistant Collector and Sub Registrar/Joint Sub Registrar. Although there has been a recent move to appoint full fledged Sub-registrar for some of the larger Tehsils. The Revenue duties of Tehsildar are important. He is the Incharge of tehsil Revenue Agency and is responsible for proper preparation and maintenance of tehsil Revenue Record and Revenue Accounts. He is also responsible for recovery of government dues under the various Acts. He is supposed to have proper control over the working of Patwaris and Kanungos and for this purpose the Tehsildar and Naib Tehsildars make inspection of patwaris and kanungos working under them.
 Tehsildars and Naib Tehsildar in fact are called Revenue officers holding separate circles and it is provided in para 242 of land Administration Manual that such allotted circle should be changed every year on October first, so that the responsibility of the Tehsildar for the whole of his charge may not be impaired. In Tehsil and Sub Tehsil, as and when Treasury Officers are not posted, then the Tehsildar and Naib Tehsildar work as Treasury Officer in addition to their own duties. Tehsildar also registers the marriages solemnized.
 The Kanungo establishment consists of field Kanungo, office Kanungo and the District Kanungos. Its strength in each district can only be altered with the sanction of the government.The field Kanungo should be constantly moving about his circle supervising the work of Patwari on the spot, except in the month of September when he stays at the Tehsil to check the Jamabandis received from the Patwaris. He also disposes of the demarcation applications marked to him by the Circle Revenue Officer. A field Kanungo is also responsible for the conduct and the work of the Patwari under his charge and it is his duty to report the work or neglect of duty or misconduct on the part of any Patwari.The office Kanungo is the Tehsildar Revenue clerk and he is the custodian of all the record received from the patwari.The District Kanungo is responsible for the efficiency of both the office and the field Kanungo and should be in camp inspecting their work for at least 15 days in each month from first October to 30th April. He is the keeper of all record received from Kanungo patwari, at sadar office.
 Patwari is an important and effective official of the lowest ebb in the Revenue Agency. No efficient Revenue Administration of a district is possible unless the patwari staff is strong, properly trained and strictly supervised.A Patwari has three chief duties:- The maintenance of record of the crop grown at every harvest;the keeping of the record of rights uptodate by the punctual record of mutations and the account of preparation of statistical returns embodying the information derived from the harvest inspections, register of mutation and record of rights.
 The limits of "Patwar circle" is a matter for the Commissioner to decide under para 238 of Land Administration Manual.It is the responsibility of Patwari to report at once all serious calamities affecting the land or the crops and all severe outbreaks of diseases amongst men and beasts. He must aid the headman in revenue collection. He keeps up a diary and a work book. The entries should be made on the day on which the events come to the notice of the patwari.
 The Patwari is responsible for the safe custody of all the records, maps and equipments of his circle that are in his charge. In the work book the Patwari will enter the work done by him on each day. His work is supervised by the field Kanungo, Sadar Kanungo & Circle Revenue Officer.
 Each Village is assigned to a particular halqwa patwari who maintains the record of ownership of land(khatauni/Jamabardi), record of cultivation on the land (Kharsa Girdawari), map of the village called 'Aks Sizra' mutation register and other records of the village.
 In every cropping season, ie. Kharif, Rabi & Zaid, the halqua patwari inspects every field and records the cultivation data.
 He also initiates mutation(ie. change in ownership) and gives certified copies of land records.
 The work of Halqa patwari is supervised by a field Kanungo, whose main duties are :
o General Supervision over Patwari
o Supervision over Village Maps
o Checking of patwari's records and statistics
 The work of Halqa patwari and Kanungo is further supervised by both the Naib Tehsildar and Tehsildar. It is the duty of Naib Tehsildar and Tehsildar that the land records are maintained correctly and all subordinate staff discharge their duties efficiently and properly. It is also the duty of Tehsildar and Naib Tehsildar that 'Jamabandi' and 'Khatauni' are prepared as per the schedule given in the Act.
 Above the Tehsildar in the Hierarchy are the Revenue Assisstant(ie.-SDM) and the Collector(ie. Deputy Commissioner).
 The record of ownership of land under the DLR Act 1954 is known as 'Khatauni' and is prepared in form no. P-VI. In case of Punjab Land Revenue Act, the records of ownership of land is known as 'Jamabandi'.
 Khatauni is the register of all persons cultivating or otherwise occupying land in a village as prescribed according to Delhi Land Revenue Rules. It is prepared in Form P-VI. It is a document prepared as part of record-of-right in every estate. It contains entries regarding ownership, cultivation and various rights in land. It is revised every 4 years when it is prepared by patwari and attested by Revenue officer.
 JAMABANDI is a document prepared as part of record-of-right of all persons owning land in a village according to Punjab Land Record Manual. It contains entries regarding ownership, cultivation and various rights in land. It is revised every 4 years when it is prepared by patwari and attested by Revenue officer. The changes of rights in land coming to the notice are reflected in the Jamabandi according to a set procedure after verification by Revenue Officer.
 Khatauni/Jamabandi are kept in the custody of halqua patwari. They are re-written after every four years incorporating all the mutations (ie. charge of ownership) that has taken place during the four year period. Khatauni/Jamabardi is the most important document as far as ownership of agricultural land is concerned and one must ensure when he buys a piece of land that his / her name is incorporated in Khatauni/Jamabandi by way of mutation. There is a seperate khatauni/jamabandi for each village.
KHASRA GIRDHAWARI : ( Record of Cultivation)
 It is a register of harvest inspections. The patwari conducts the field harvest inspections in the month of October, February & April, wherein he records facts regarding crop grown, soil classification, cultivable capacity of the cultivators. The first six monthly inspection starting from Ist October is called as Khariff girdhawari while the second commencing from Ist February is called Rabi girdhawari. In the month of april the "Zaid" girdhawari is done.
 The entries made by the halqa patwari are verified by the field Kanungo Kharsa Girdawari entries are made in form P-1V in case of Delhi Land Revenue Act 1954 and in form no.11 in case of Punjab Land Revenue Act 1887.
 Mutation indicates the changes that have to be brought about in ownership and title of the land. Mutations are done on the basis of Sale deed, Inheritance, Gift deed, Relinquish deed, Will etc.
Procedure for carrying out mutation
o Apply on a plain paper with a Non-judicial stamp of Rs.5 affixed on it.
o Application should be addressed to the Tehsildar of the area in which the land is situated.
o Clearly mention the name of the village in which the right has been acquired & give description of the land.
o The name, parentage, residence of the person from whom the right has been acquired and the manner in which the right has been acquired.
o The name, parentage and residence of the person who has acquired the right.
o The date of acquiring the right.
o The application should be submitted along with copies of documents on the basis of which the mutation is sought.
Process
o A proclamation is issued inviting objections to the proposed mutation and specifying the date (being not less than 15 days from the date of the proclamation) upto which any objection to the mutation will be entertained.
o Halqa patwari submits his report in prescribed format no.P-I
o Statement of parties are recorded
o Contents of documents are matched with the recorded statements
o If no objection is received, the mutation is sanctioned.
o If objection is received against the mutation application, the same is referred to Revenue Assistant (SDM) of the area for taking appropriate decision. This is applicable only in case of land governed by DLR Act 1954.
o Any party aggreived by an order of mutation may file appeal before Collector (Deputy Commissioner / Additional District Magistrate) within 30 days of such order.
 Certified copies of land records like Khatauni/Jamabandi & Kharsa Gurdhawari can be obtained by any person of any revenue record available in the office of Tehsildar. It can be obtained by applying in Form CA-I duly stamped with non-judicial stamp and the certified copy is issued after locating the original record. Mostly the copies are issued by In-charge of the Record Room. The certified copy is normally issued in 7 days time.
 The applications for demarcation of land can be made to the Tehsildar concerned after depositing the prescribed fees. The applications for demarcation in case of boundary disputes shall be entertained by the Revenue Assistant (SDM), which should be accompanied by a certified extract from the map and khasras on the basis of which demarcation is sought. After obtaining application for demarcation, a notice will be issued to the parties concerned in the demarcation. The demarcation is done in presence of parties concerned by the Kanungo. Thereafter demarcation report is submitted to the Tehsildar &Revenue Assisstant (RA) and shall be consigned to the record room of Tehsil. Then parties concerned can obtain certified copy of demarcation report from i/c Record Room.
 Lambardar is the most important functionary in the village. His main function is to keep watch over the law and order situation in his area and report the matter to the nearest police station in case of breach of law. It is also his duty to collect the revenue dues for Government from various sources and to remit these into treasury. He is given 5 per cent of land revenue collection which is called pachotra. He is the custodian of all government properties in the village. He also reports to the Tahsildar about the deaths of assignees and pensioners and their absence for over a year. Above all, he is the representative of Government in the village. He is assisted by a village Chowkidar.
 A tehsildar is a revenue administrative officer in Pakistan and India in charge of obtaining taxation from a tehsil. The term is of imperial Mughal origin made of "tahsil", an Islamic administrative derived from Arabic, meaning "revenue generating; collection" and "dar", Persian for "holder of a position", together meaning tax collector. The role of tehsildar continued during the period of British Rule and was subsequently used by Pakistan and India following their independence from the British. The deputy of a tehsildar is known as a naib tehsildar.
 During British rule the tehsildar was a stipendiary officer of the government to raise revenue, in the "History of the Colonies of the British Empire: From the Official Records", Robert Montgomery Martin described local government as follows:
 In Pakistan a Tehsildar is responsible for obtaining revenue from a Tehsil, or Taluka (as called in Sindh), which is then used by the district government. A Tehsil is a sub-division of a District and will have multiple smaller administrative units called 'Mouza' or 'Deh'. Typically a district will contain multiple Tehsils.
 He is a gazetted officer (class I), a Tehsildar enjoys a fair amount of authority and respect, especially in the rural and urban areas and is also tasked to forecast the expected seasonal crop yields and classify and map the landuse in the respective Tehsil.
 A Tehsildar is also called a 'Mukhtiarkar' in Sindh.
 Tehsildars are appointed by the Financial Commissioner, Revenue and Naib Tehsildars by the Commissioner of the Division. Their Duties within Tehsil /Sub Tehsil are almost similar and manifold (except that partition cases are decided by Tehsildar). They enjoy the powers of Executive Magistrate, Assistant Collector and Sub Registrar/Joint Sub Registrar. Although there has been a recent move to appoint full fledged Sub-registrar for some of the larger Tehsils. The Revenue Duties of Tehsildar are important. He is the In charge of tehsil Revenue Agency and is responsible for proper preparation and maintenance of tehsil Revenue Record and Revenue Accounts. He is also responsible for recovery of government dues under the various Acts. He is supposed to have proper control over the working of Patwaris and Kanungos and for this purpose the Tehsildar and Naib Tehsildars make inspection of patwaris and kanungos working under them.
 Halqua Patwari or Lekhpaal: Each Village is assigned to a particular halqwa patwari who maintains the record of ownership of land(khatauni/Jamabardi), record of cultivation on the land (Kharsa Girdawari), map of the village called 'Aks Sizra' mutation register and other records of the village. In every cropping season, ie. Kharif, Rabi & Zaid, the halqua patwari inspects every field and records the cultivation data. He also initiates mutation(ie. change in ownership) and gives certified copies of land records.
Registrar Kanungo: The work of Lekhpaal is supervised by a Reg. Kanungo, whose main duties are :

o General Supervision over Patwari
o Supervision over Village Maps
o Checking of patwari's records and statistics
 Naib Tehsildar & Tehsildar: The work of Lekhpaal and Reg. Kanungo is further supervised by both the Naib Tehsildar and Tehsildar. It is the duty of Naib Tehsildar and Tehsildar that the land records are maintained correctly and all subordinate staff discharge their duties efficiently and properly. It is also the duty of Tehsildar and Naib Tehsildar that 'Khatauni' are prepared as per the schedule given in the Act.
 Khatauni: Khatauni is the register of all persons cultivating or otherwise occupying land in a village as prescribed according to Uttar Pradesh Land Revenue Rules. It is prepared in Form P-VI. It is a document prepared as part of record-of-right. It contains entries regarding ownership, cultivation and various rights in land. It is revised every 6 years. This duration of six years is called Fasli-year.
 Khasra: (Record of Cultivation): It is a register of harvest inspections(parhtaal). The Lekhpaal conducts the field harvest inspections in the month of October, February & April, wherein he records facts regarding crop grown, soil classification, cultivable capacity of the cultivators. The first six monthly inspection starting from Ist October is called as "Khariff" parhtaal while the second commencing from Ist February is called "Rabi" parhtaal. In the month of april the "Zaid" parhtaal is done.

Measurements of land Linear Measure
1 inch = 2.54 centimetres
1 foot = 30.48 centimetres
1 yard = 91.44 centimetres
1 mile =1.61 kilometres
1 Ghatta = 8.25 feet

Square Measure
1 square foot = 0.093 square metre
1 square yard = 0.836 square metre
1 square mile = 2.59 square kilometre = 259 hectares
1 acre = 0.405 hectares
1 Acre = 4 Bigha 16 Biswa (4840 Sq.Yds)
1 Bigha = 20 Biswas (1008 Sq.Yds)
1 Biswa = 50 Sq.Yards

The following are the basic measurements of land used in Punjab, Pakistan and Punjab, India in ascending order.
• 1 karam is 5.5 feet
• 1 marla is 9 Sq karams (272.25 sq ft)
• 1 kanaal is 20 marlas (5,445 sq ft)
• 1 keela is 8 kanaals (43,560 sq ft = 1 acre)
• 1 marabba is 25 keelas (1,089,000 sq ft = 25 acres)

A keela is measured rectangularly, reckoned as an area 36 karams x 40 karams, or 198 feet x 220 feet = 43,560 square feet.
Kothis are measured in marlas and kanaals. Most are 2-4 kanaals but the big ones can be anything from 4-6 kanaals.

A couple of older measures:
1 biswa = 15 Sq karams; 12 biswas = 1 kanaal
1 bigha = 20 biswas - 1008 Sq Yards - 842.68 Sq Mtr

In land transaction the acre is often used to express areas of land. Land records are written in metric system. An acre is approximately 40% of a hectare.
The measurement of agricultural land was carried in British Units. The units used for land measurement were as follows:

12 inches = 1 foot
3 feet = 1 yard
9 Square Feet = 1 square yard
121Square yard = 1 Guntha
40 Gunthas = 1 acre

In so many village maps you might have seen scale as a for example 1 Inch=10 Chain.
You have to convert chain into feet as follows:
1 Chain = 66 feet or 22 yards
10 chains = 1 furlong
1 furlong = 201.168 Meters

The land is now measured in Metric System using following decimal table.
1000 Millimeters = 1 Metre
100 Square Metres = 1 Are
100 Ares = 1 Hector

In 1958, the United States and countries of the Commonwealth of Nations defined the length of the international yard to be 0.9144 meters. Consequently, the international acre is exactly 4,046.8564224 square meters. Accordingly
1 Hector = 2.47 acres (approximately)

In the Village Form VII-XII when you read in the “area” column numbers for example
01-34-21 it means
01 = 10000 Square Metres
34 = 3400 Square Metres
21 = 21 Square Metres
Total = 13421 Square Metres

Conversion Table
1 Inch = 2.54 Centimetre
36 Inches = 1 yard
1 yard = 91.44 Centimetres
1 yard = 00.9144 Metres
1 Centimetre = 00.393 inches
100 Centimetres = 39.3 inches
1 Metre = 3.28 ft
1 acre = 1 furlong X 1 chain
1 acre = 660 ft X 66 ft
1 acre = 43560 Sq. ft.
1 acre = 4840 square yards
1 acre = 4046.8564224 Square Metres
1 hectare = 10,000 Square Metre
1 hectare = 107,639 sq ft
1 hectare = 11959.8 sq. yards (1 sq. yard = 0.83612736 sq. Metre)
1 hectare = 11959.8/4840 = 2.47 acre

LAND RECORD INFORMATION
1. What are the distinguishing features of LRMIS system?
The manual paper-based land records are transformed into computerized data base. The right holders will be able to acquire land records related services easily from the service centers. Any transaction in revenue record will immediately be incorporated in Register Haqdaran-e-Zameen which will be updated at once.
2. Will I be able to get my fard-e-malkiat conveniently?
Yes, every right holder can easily obtain fard-e-malkiat and other record related services from the respective LRMIS center, after paying specified fee.
3. What will be the process of getting fard in new system?
The right holders will have to go to the service center. The staff will search their record by their name, father/husband name, khewat number and will desire for CNIC. The service center staff will take the thumb impression through a bio-metric device and a photo. The right holder will get copy of their record within 10-15 minutes after paying the specified fee.
4. The Patwari can easily search out the desired record due to his personal knowledge. How will the LRMIS system search out the records?
LRMIS provides the options for searching out the record by i): name, ii): father/husband name, iii): relevant khewat number, iv): CNIC (if the right holder has got his CNIC incorporated in Register Haqdaran-e-Zameen).
5. What will be the process of mutation?
Anyone who intends to mutate any land can apply for mutation verbally of in form of written application in the service center. The staff will register their request and provide them the challan for payment of specified fee and will fix a date for next visit. On that scheduled date the buyer, seller along with the witnesses will visit the service center wherein the Revenue Officer will decide the mutation. In cased of approval of mutation both buyers and sellers will be provided with a copy of the mutation and updated fard-e-malkiat, free of cost, with the photographs of the buyers printed thereon.
6. Will the mutation fee be deposited to the bank through service center staff?
The service center staff will not collect the mutation fee yet they will provide computer generated challan for payment of applicable government dues in the bank.
7. How much time will be required for mutation of inheritance?
The right holders will be given a date for next visit to service center within next 15 days after the registration of their request for mutation, in order to get their mutation decided.
8. How will the right holders identify the piece of land for which they would have requested for particular service (fard/mutation) as majority of land owners do not know their khewat numbers; whereas currently this situation is tackled with the help of patwari and the village map (masawi)?
The scanned images of village maps (masawi) are available in the database in the service center in order to identify the piece of land. At the same time all records will also be available with patwari and any one can take his help before approaching service center.
9. Can the buyer and seller contact the patwari for getting fard or mutation
There will an interim period of one year for transition from old system to new system. Meanwhile the fard can be issued and mutation can be entered both by the Patwari and service center.
10. Can a mutation be decided without witnesses?
All the mutation will be attested in presence of both parties (buyer and seller) as well as witnesses
11. Majority of right holders/villagers are illiterate therefore getting such automated/sophisticated services will be difficult for them.
The LRMIS is user friendly system. The staff over there will be well qualified very cooperative and will guide the right holder in case of any difficulty.
12. Will the staff at service center be visiting country side like patwaris?
Unlike patwaris, the service center staff does not have to go to field visits and will remain available at service center during working hours on every working day; whereas the ex-revenue staff will keep on performing the field duties.
13. Will signature from Patwari be required on fard-e-malkiat for registration of a transaction?
Signature from Patwari will not be required on fard-e-malkiat for registration of any transaction.
14. Who will issue the pass book?
The pass book will be prepared by the patwari and verified from the service center.

Central Board of Revenue (CBR)

The Central Board of Revenue (CBR) was created on April 01, 1924 through enactment of the Central Board of Revenue Act, 1924. In 1944, a full-fledged Revenue Division was created under the Ministry of Finance. After independence, this arrangement continued up to 31st August 1960 when on the recommendations of the Administrative Re-organization Committee, FBR was made an attached department of the Ministry of Finance. In 1974, further changes were made to streamline the organization and its functions. Consequently, the post of Chairman FBR was created with the status of ex-officio Additional Secretary and Secretary Finance was relieved of his duties as ex-officio Chairman of the FBR.

In order to remove impediments in the exercise of administrative powers of a Secretary to the Government and effective formulation and implementation of fiscal policy measures, the status of FBR as a Revenue Division was restored under the Ministry of Finance on October 22, 1991. However, the Revenue Division was abolished in January 1995, and FBR reverted back to the pre-1991 position. The Revenue Division continues to exist since from December 01, 1998.

By the enactment of FBR Act 2007 in July 2007 the Central Board of Revenue has now become Federal Board of Revenue.
In the existing setup, the Chairman, FBR, being the executive head of the Board as well as Secretary of the Revenue Division has the responsibility for (i) Formulation and administration of fiscal policies,
(ii) Levy and collection of federal taxes and (iii) Quasi-judicial function of hearing of appeals.
His responsibilities also involve interaction with the offices of the President, the Prime Minister, all economic Ministries as well as trade and industry.

The Chairman, FBR/Secretary, Revenue Division is assisted by nine Members ; Member Strategic Planning and Statistics (SP&S), Member Inland Revenue; Member Customs; Member Enforcement and Accounting (E&A); Member (Taxpayers Audit); Member Facilitation and Taxpayer Education(FATE) ; Member Legal; Member Reformed General Sales Tax (RGST)/Expeditious Refund Payment System(ERPS) and Member (Administration); (As per circular NO. F.1/1CH-FBR/2009 dated, 26-Jan-2011)

The post of Member Reformed General sales Tax (RGST)/Expeditious Refund Payment System(ERPS) will continue till first of January,2012, only.

The Member Facilitation and Taxpayer Education(FATE) is also official spokesperson of FBR.

The followings are the major functions of Revenue.
1. Supervises revenue work of Commissioners, Deputy Commissioners, Assistant Commissioners and other Officers/Courts in the province
2. Member (Revenue) is the highest court of appeal and revision in revenue cases in the province
3. Classes of Revenue Officers/Courts
4. Is responsible for recovery of Government Dues/Agricultural Income Tax, Land Revenue, Water Rate, Ushr, Mutation Fees, Stamp Duty, Registration Fee, Copying Fee, Arrears relating to Banks, Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan and Cooperative Societies
5. Frames Laws/Rules/Policies relating to the revenue matters
6. Provides guidelines for maintenance and updating of Record of Rights, Periodical Record for use of the Right-holders/Revenue Department
7. Notifies new administrative units such as divisions, districts, sub-divisions and Kanungo/Patwar Circles Deals with all service matters relating to revenue staff

The followings points describes the duties of revenue officers and officals.
1. Member (Revenue) is the Chief Controlling Authority for revenue matters in the Province
2. Commissioner is appointed by the Government for each Division and exercises control over all the Revenue Officers and Courts in his division
3. Deputy Commissioner is appointed by the Government for each district. He is vested with the ex-officio powers of Collector of the district. All Revenue Officers and Revenue Courts in the district are subject to his control and superintendence
4. Assistant Commissioner exercises the powers of the sub-divisional Collector
5. Tehsildar is vested with the powers of Assistant Collector, 1st grade
6. Naib-Tehsildar is vested with the powers of Assistant Collector, 2nd grade
7. Kanungo supervises the work of the Patwaris in the Kanungoi
8. Patwari is the lowest functionary of the Revenue department. He maintains and updates the records pertaining to his Patwar Circle
9. Patwari carries out field survey/crop inspection twice a year in the months of March (Rabi) and October (Kharif)
Lambardar or headman is a person who is appointed by the District Collector under the Land Revenue Act 1967. His duties include collection of land taxes of an revenue estate (mauza)

Classes of Revenue Officers/Courts
Member (Revenue) Province
Commissioner Division
Deputy Commissioner/Collector District
Assistant Commissioner/Sub-Divisional Collector Sub- division
Tehsildar /Assistant Collector, 1st Grade Tehsil
Naib-Tehsildar / Assistant Collector, 2nd Grade Assigned circle/ area

The Revenue Department also deals with the land acquisition matters. The power to take the private property of individuals for public purposes is regulated by the LAND ACQUISITION ACT, 1894. Salient features of the said Act/Steps for acquisition are :

1. Government shows its intention to acquire specific piece of land for a public purpose or for a company through publication of notification in the official gazette and invites objections against notification
2. After marking and measurement of the land to be acquired, notices are issued to persons having rights/interests in the land inviting claims from them for compensation
3. Before possession of land is taken, award of compensation for the owners is announced by the Collector after necessary enquiries
4. Compensation for acquired land is determined at its market value plus 15% in consideration of compulsory nature of the acquisition for public purposes and 25% for a company
5. A reference can be made by the Collector to Civil Court where any person affected by land acquisition has not accepted the award by given the Collector
6. In case of urgency, Commissioner can make a declaration U/S 17(4)(6) directing the Collector to take possession of the land needed for a public purpose before award of compensation
 Land means land which is not occupied by the site of a town, village, factory or industrial establishment, and is occupied or has been or can be let for agricultural purpose allied or subservient to agriculture and includes the sites of buildings and other structures on such land.There are 10 main categories of land based on mode of Irrigation and type of soil i.e. Chahi, Nul Chahi, Nehri, Nul Nehri, Sailabi, Abi, Barani, BanjarJadeed, Banjar Qadeem and Ghair Mumkin

These are the various levis of land
1. Agricultural Income Tax
2. Local Rate
3. Water Rate
4. Mutation Fee
5. Charges for Inspection of Record of Patwaris and for Grant of Copies of Extracts

A settlement thus consists of : fixing the assessment; and framing the record of rights

OBJECTIVES OF THE SETTLEMENTS
The main feature of the settlement is to assess the Land-Revenue. The settlement system of Punjab started systematically in the British Regime and settlements were carried out in the Province of Punjab for the following purpose
• To proper field survey with the results embodies in a map and field register
• A full inquiry into the right and liabilities of all persons having interest in the soil, and the record of these rights and liabilities in permanent registers
• A moderate assessment based on general considerations rather than an attempt to deduce the demand from an exact calculation of the landlords net assets and the share thereof claim able by Government
Conducts audit and inspection of receipts under the following enactments
1. The Stamp Act, 1899
2. The Registration Act, 1908
3. The Court Fee Act 1870


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Re: BRIEF INFORMATION ABOUT AD LAND RECORDS

Post by maryam90 » Fri Nov 18, 2016 9:48 pm

important material for lro interview preparation ...
“If you’re not willing to fail, you won’t succeed.” :)

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