ENGLISH ESSAY FOR ALL/IMPORTANT TOPICS

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yousaf
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Re: ENGLISH ESSAY FOR ALL/IMPORTANT TOPICS

Post by yousaf » Thu Oct 18, 2012 12:07 pm

SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROBLEMS OF PAKISTANOutline:• Introduction• Problems Faced By Pakistan At The Time Of Inception• Current Scenario• Social Problemsi) Povertyii) Illiteracyiii) Overpopulationiv) Unemploymentv) Child Labourvi) Corruptionvii) Poor Social Sector Including Health, Safe Drinking Water, Sanitation And Basic Infrastructureviii) Women Are Not Empoweredix) Human Rights Problemx) Injusticexi) Sectarianism, Extremism, And Target Killingxii) Absence Of Rule Of Law• Economic Problemsi) Economic Loss Due To War On Terrorismii) Energy Crisisiii) Low FDI And Huge Debt Trapiv) Poorly Managed Tax Systemv) Low Export And High Importvi) Inflationvii) Influx Of Local People Fom War Ridden Areas And Their Rehabilitationviii) Lack Of Tourism• Suggestionsi) Ensuring Equal Distribution Of Wealth.ii) Dispensation Of Free And Quick Justiceiii) To Curb Corruption At All Levelsiv) The Curriculum Of Schools Need Be Reviewedv) Health Care Be Provided To All Citizensvi) Provision Of Equal Rights To All Citizensvii) Poverty Alleviation Programmes Be Initiatedviii) Population Growth Be Controlledix) New Dams Should Be Builtx) New Industries Be Set Up To Provide Employment.ConclusionPeople are the essential pillar of any country. It is the fundamental duty and responsibility of the country to fulfil the basic needs of its people. Basic needs of man comprises of shelter, food and clothing. When these needs are not fulfilled they bring about problems termed as socio-economic problems. Pakistan has also been suffering from these problems. The real issue is not the presence of these problems in the society. But the extent to which they are being paid attention and solved. When these problems are not met timely and the grievances of the people are not redressed they turn out to be a menace for the country. They assert a negative impact on society. The society deprived of basic necessities of life is ignorant of its obligations towards the country. This results in deviant behaviour, drug abuse, smuggling, corruption, poverty, illiteracy and many other social evils. The country beset with social crises and problems fails to attract foreign investment. Low investment results in economic breakdown and causes decline in export, low MNCs business, tumbling stock market and inflation. Pakistan has been facing a lot social problems since its inception in 1947. In the start there were the problems of lack of funds, rehabilitation of refugees, poor infrastructure and widespread poverty of masses. Quaid-e-Azam tried his best to solve these problems and get the state machinery working. Owing to his sudden death he could not eradicate these problems completely. Unfortunately, leaders after him did not pay considerable attention towards the solution of various problems. Subsequently, the problems have grown with the passage of time and become social evils.Pakistan is a developing country and faces all social problems that developing countries face along with political instability that aggravates the problems further. Currently, Pakistan has many challenges to face in the form of social and economic problems.Poverty has been one of the biggest problems that Pakistan faces today. It is rightly said that poverty anywhere is a threat to prosperity everywhere. 70 per cent of the population of Pakistan live in villages. According to an analysis, poverty has increased roughly from 30% to 40% during the past decade. It means that 40 per cent of the country’s population is merely earning their livelihood below the poverty line. In such condition people are deprived of their basic necessities of life. Proper education and medication are becoming distant from them. They are forced to think of their survival only.Perhaps the greatest loss comes in the field of education. The inadequacy of quality education renders our country incapable of dealing with the challenges of the 21st century. People marred by poverty are unable to afford quality education for their children. In addition, government’s negligence is aggravating the situation further. Despite various steps taken by different governments for the promotion of education, literacy rate lingers at 56% over the decade. Pakistan is spending only a meagre amount of its GDP on this vital sector. Owing to low investment, government run schools are deprived of basic facilities like proper classrooms, water and sanitation facilities, electricity. Private sector is doing a commendable job in this regard. But owing to money making objective of this sector, education has been beyond poor’s reach. The primary completion rate in Pakistan given by UNESCO is 33.8 % in females and 47% in males, which shows that people in the 6th largest country of the world are unable to get the basic education.Pakistan is facing the dragon of overpopulation. The growth rate of Pakistan is very high and is among the highest in the world. Since 1947, the population has become more than triple. Pakistan is almost touching 180 million mark. Population expansion has been a real issue of concern for all governments. With limited resources it is very difficult to cater to the needs of growing population. There is a great economic disparity among the people. Poor are committing suicides out of hunger while rich are busy in amassing more and more wealth. These social problems directly affect the masses. The massively increasing population has almost outstripped the resources in production, facilities and in job opportunities.Pakistan is poorly faced with the problem of unemployment. The existing unemployment rate is 15%. Pakistan is confronting cyclical, technical, structural and seasonal unemployment. It is always considered to be killing for an economy. The most horrible part is that it is rising every year which in long term will demonstrate to be hazardous for the economy of Pakistan. It has negative impact on society. It creates frustration and revengeful attitude. It leads to an increase in the incidences of crimes.Owing to poverty and unemployment, parents instead of sending their children to schools, prefer child labour for them. They make them do so to support their family and use them as earning hands from the early age. The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan estimated in 2005 that there would be 10 to 12 million child workers in Pakistan by 2010-11.But according to an All-Pakistan Labour Force survey, this number has doubled to about 21 million child workers. It shows the gravity of the situation. The main reason is poverty, while the low literacy rate has also contributed to the problem to a large extent. Child labour is a sort of deluge that is draining away our precious talent to be utilized in right place. Child labour pushes them into a bad company and immoral activities such as use of drugs, crime.Corruption is another huge social problem. Transparency International (TI) has ranked Pakistan 34th most corrupt nation in the world. The menace of corruption has links to a multitude of vices. Its roots are linked to injustice, mistrust, suspicion, extremism and terrorist activities. It creates a sense of insecurity, exacerbates poverty and adds to the misfortune of the vulnerable segments of the society. It also instils a sense of hopelessness and despondency and threatens the strength of good values which have been established over centuries of civilized struggle.Rising poverty in Pakistan necessitates that 10 per cent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) be spent on social sector including education, health, safe drinking water, sanitation and basic infrastructure to achieve Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. At present, Pakistan spends only three per cent of its GDP on health and education whereas India allocates nine per cent for these sectors. Such a meagre amount which is already insufficient to cater to the needs is further misappropriated. There are less hospitals and medical centres. If there are any, the people are unable to afford their and their children’s health expenses. So the health problems grow unchecked. It is very depressing that basic health facilities are not available to the half of the population.We have seen phenomenal changes in the world. But the status and fate of women has not changed much in Pakistan. In Pakistan their situation has become worse. It comes as no surprise that we were recently rated as one of the worst countries in the world when it comes to the way we treat women. More than 60 years after independence, 80% of Pakistan women are still subject to domestic violence. One in three has to endure villainy like rape, honour killing, immolation and acid attacks.Pakistanis have suffered for decades because their human rights have not been protected in the communities as well the courts. Whether they are women or children, Ahmedis or Christians, Shiites or atheists, the rights of minorities are always threatened. Pakistan still struggles between the secular British and religious Arabic laws and traditions. The violation of human right can easily be attributed to the absence of timely justice to the masses.Justice delayed is justice denied. Dispensation of timely justice is the core essence of a welfare society. It is the duty of the state to promote justice. But in the case of Pakistan it has always been a day dream for the poor masses. Since the independence judiciary has been captive at the hands of establishment. Weak judiciary has been unable to redress the grievances of the masses. Under such conditions people resort to violent actions and resolve their issues by extreme methods.Religious differences such as Shia vs. Sunni are further adding fuel to the fire. Religious extremism that took its roots in Pakistan after the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979 is proving venomous for Pakistan. This religious extremism took a new shape of terrorism after 9/11. After the incident of 9/11 suicide bombing in Pakistan has become a norm of the day. Target killing is another menace which is claiming hundreds of innocent lives daily. Owing to poor governance, the government is losing control over law and order situation. When individuals put themselves ahead of institutions, they set a bad example. Suicide attacks, target killing, robbery and other crimes have become norm of the day. And government seems helpless in this regard.Social problems are interlinked with economic problems. Economic prosperity serves as a backbone for the overall progress of a nation. One thing is common in all developed nations- they are economically sound. When citizens of a country are freed from the worries of earning a livelihood to sustain their lives, they divert their attention to more useful things. They focus on education, improvise healthcare, develop technologies that make life easy and much more. Poor economic condition is the root cause of so many problems that exist in a society. Unfortunately, Pakistan’s economic conditions are pathetic. As if power crises, lack of foreign investment for the development of industrial zones, backward and out-dated technology were not enough, Pakistan’s indulgence in war on terrorism served as a fatal blow to the already crumbling economic state. Terrorism has emerged as a monster for the world in general and for Pakistan in particular. Pakistan’s involvement in War on Terror has proved a nightmare. The image of Pakistan as a peace loving country has been tarnished. Thousands of Pakistanis have lost their lives while millions have lost everything they had and are forced to migrate to relatively safer places. This war has destroyed our economy beyond imagination. Terrorism is very closely linked to the declining economic conditions and high rate of illiteracy prevailing in our country. The poor and illiterate become easy prey to the masterminds who can train and use them in whatever they want. Pakistan’s economy has suffered on two accounts: first large amount of money is being used on WoT, and second because we have lost many foreign investors and markets.Energy crisis has further crippled the already tumbling economy. It has almost jammed the industrial wheel of the country. Owing to frequent outages many industrial units have been closed. Closure of industries has caused a severe blow to economy. Energy starved economy fails to attract foreign investment badly.Poor economic condition of the country has not only kept the foreign investors away but the local as well. When the conditions for industrial sector are not healthy in the country, the inflow of foreign money to the country is checked causing decline in foreign reserves. Decline in foreign reserves compel the country to seek loans from the other countries. Owing to fragile economy, FDI is shrinking on account of terrorism and political instability. Another major problem is Pakistan’s huge debt and its continued dependence on financial aid.Moreover, tax system in Pakistan is also inefficient and unsatisfactory. Ratio of direct taxes is more than indirect taxes. Tax evasion is common. The rich are reluctant to pay tax, while the poor are paying tax even on the purchase of a match box.With unhealthy conditions and decline in foreign reserves, the country is destined to face low export and high import. It is also the case with our industrial sector. Due to inconsistent supply of electricity to industrial sector, our industry fails to give required output. Not to speak of surplus production, our industries are not able to meet the national requirement. The production of goods in lesser quantities has affected export from our industrial sector. This makes our country to import goods, in order to meet the needs of the masses causing inflation. Inflation provides an important insight on the state of the economy and policies that govern it. Stable inflation not only provides impetus for economic growth, but also helps uplift vulnerable strata of society. Pakistan, in recent years has been in the grip of high inflation, which amongst other things has adversely affected the economic health of the country. The overall Consumer Price Index (CPI), a key indicator of inflation, has swelled by 76% in the last four years, eroding the purchasing power of the people as the overall economy has not performed in line with ever-increasing prices.Moreover, local people of war-ridden areas are migrating to other areas of Pakistan. Country has seen the largest migration since independence in 1947. These people have left their homes, businesses, possessions and property back home. This large influx of people and their rehabilitation is an economic burden for Pakistan. Unemployment is already prevalent and now the question of providing employment to these migrants has also become a serious concern. This portion of population is contributing nothing worthwhile to the national income yet they have to be benefited from it. This unproductive lot of people is a growing economic problem of Pakistan.Last but not least, lack of tourism is also a cause of the declining in economy. Northern areas of Pakistan have been a place of great tourist attraction. The beautiful hills, the lush green valleys, shimmering lakes and flowing waterfalls brought many a tourist from all over the world to Pakistan. This contributed to foreign exchange. Tourism Industry was one of the booming industries of Pakistan. Besides attracting foreign exchange, it also provided employment to local people. Also, tourist industry was a source of friendly relations with other countries. Nevertheless, war on terrorism has served as a serious blow to the tourism industry of Pakistan. Local as well as foreign media has projected Pakistan as a dangerous and unsafe country. Its poor law and order situation has alarmed the tourist and thus Northern areas no more receive many tourists. For Pakistanis to make sure that Pakistan not only survives but also grows and thrives and joins the modern world by becoming a progressive and democratic state, they need to take following steps:• The gap between the rich and the poor must be decreased by ensuring equal distribution of wealth.• Dispensation of free and quick justice be ensured by strengthening judiciary.• There is a sheer need to curb corruption at all levels. The institutions of NAB and FIA should be made more powerful to curb corruption• The curriculum of schools need be reviewed so that children can receive scientific and secular education in their mother tongue. In addition, there is need to develop critical and creative thinking.• Health care education and free health care needs be provided to all citizens.• Provision of equal rights to all citizens especially women and minorities be ensured.• Poverty alleviation programmes be initiated to reduce poverty and child labour.• Population growth be controlled by spreading awareness about the advantages of small families among the masses through media.• Energy crisis must be resolved on priority basis to revitalize the dying economy.• New dams should be built and new methods of producing electricity should be utilized. • Youth be equipped with technical education and new industries be set up to provide employment.There are so many problems in Pakistan. There is only one thing that can help Pakistan in solving all the problems that is the self-improvement of each and every Pakistani. All of us should be patriotic, honest, and hardworking. Everyone should respect the laws of country and obey the laws. Only then we can change our Pakistan's condition. There is a famous saying "God does not change the condition of any country until the people of the country do not improve their selves. “It is true in the case of Pakistan. u can done following further changes/improvents of above out line IN THE ESSAY•responsibility of the country (of the state)•clothing. When these needs (yaha per ek Comma n AND (, and ) likh kar clothing and when ko connect kardo) fluency banni rahegi. •they bring about problems (yaha per THEY ko cut karo aur phrase lagaho, for example when these essential needs are not provided bla bla bla ) ahee samaj?•Bar bar THESE PROBLEMS THESE PROBLEMS.. repeat na kar Roshan sahb. •negative impact on society (THE SOCIETY)•The society deprived of basic necessities of life is ignorant of its obligations towards the country (The society, deprived of basic necessities of life, is ignorant of its obligations towards the country) coma mistake•MNCs business (MNC ko pahlay full form mey likho, later on MNC likhtey raho. Multi Natinal Companies)•tumbling stock market and inflation. (Stock tau chalo tumbling kar raha hai per inflation tau nai. Inflation k liye adjective use kar warna idea wrong) E.g. Tumbling Stock market and shooting up inflation. •a lot social (a lot of )•. Quaid-e-Azam (write with a title) The founder, the creator etc. •Owing to his sudden death he could not eradicate (owing to his sudden death, he could) comma mistake. •, leaders after him did not pay (the leaders)•Pakistan is a developing country and faces all social problems that developing countries face along with political instability that aggravates the problems further. (sentence structure is incorrect) Correction: Pakistan is a developing country and faces all social problems that developing countries face along with political instability, which aggravates the problems further.•70 per cent of the population of Pakistan live (lives)•. According to an analysis (according to a report, per kis institution ki? Write the name State bank, IMF?)•. With limited resources it is very difficult to cater to (With limited resources, it is very difficult to cater to) comma error•be hazardous for the economy (more hazardous)•negative impact on society. (the society)•use of drugs, crime. (and crime)•also instills a (can u use here easier vocab than INSTILL?)•Three per cent of its GDP on health and education (3% say kam hai , I guess its 2.5%)•. Pakistan still struggles between the secular British and religious Arabic laws and traditions (still struggling is better )•such as Shia vs. Sunni (better to write DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SUNNI AND SHIA) •in Pakistan after the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979 is proving ( Irani revolution, actually, not the cause. It was Zia’s despotism that sowed the seeds of sectarianism and handed over guns to the students instead of books)•Owing to poor governance, the government is losing control over law and order situation. •migrate to relatively safer (relatively use kia tua SAFE is likho) •and use them in whatever they want (use them in their sinister designs KESE rahega?)•we have lost many foreign (‘we have’ ki jagga the country likho) •Owing to fragile economy, FDI is shrinking on account of terrorism and political instability (‘Owing to’ phir ‘on account’) ambiguity hai yaha. •brought many a tourist from all over the (incorrect: many a )•free and quick justice be ensured by (BE k sath must or should likho. Yeah methods sirf headings mey use hota hai)
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yousaf
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Re: ENGLISH ESSAY FOR ALL/IMPORTANT TOPICS

Post by yousaf » Thu Oct 18, 2012 12:13 pm

What are the hurdles in our way to becoming a truly independent stateIntroductionIndependence in its true sense becomes the basis of development in all the essential spheres of life.Developed countries are truly independent states.Take an Example of existing world powers.-Pakistan is comparatively less developed because its true independence is hijacked by the following factorsBody1. Incompetent Economy- loans and foreign aids at heavy costs. (U.S,U.N) Global war on terror.- Rivalry with India and extravagant defense expenses render economy inadequate.- Inflation- Unemployment- Poverty - Imbalanced social classification based on financial influence, feudalism, land lordship.- Improper utilization of natural resources and men power. Deficient technology, unskilled technicians- Faulty infrastructure (Reckless Roadways and public spots), slow tourist and trade activities.2.Weak Institutes-Government institutes fail to deliver on their respective duty charters. Declined Progress graph of PIA,FIA,NAB,AUDIT,WAPDA,SSGCL,CIVIL SERVICES,EDUCATION and the like various other small institutes.-confronts between Executive and judicial classes.-Widely pervasive corruption engulfing nearly all the state departments.-Trend of bribery regardless of fair play, conventional favoritism, nepotism and appointment of unqualified staff on this criteria.3.Illiteracy- About half of the population is illiterate- Copy culture- Awarding fake degrees.- Unqualified faculty at educational institutes.- Shortage of Schools and Colleges and inoperative ones used by Local influentials in rural areas.- Insufficient facilities and modern equipments in govt. educational centers.- Corrupt administration in charge of viable functioning of educational institutions (From EDO To Head MASTER) All the officials are involved in exploiting government fund utilities for the development of education sector in the country.-Most of the female portion of the society is deprived of education due to unawareness and conservative ideas.4. Dysfunctional Political Structure-Political Parties are founded on dynastic principles. A Few selected individuals are privileged to govern.- politics for the sake of individual benefit not for that of state at large. Corrupt politicians and nro. culture of “LOTA –IIFAFA” money factor in the interchange of parties by politicians>deaf ear to their national responsibilities.- Fake degree holder parliamentarians and ministers.- Trammeling Martial laws in the past.5. Foreign interference in national policymaking and injured sovereignty of the state.- Widely held belief of American dominance on national policy making>trust deficit between population and government.- lose control over international boundaries>influx of refugees and foreign agents continues.- unauthorized aerial attacks by us drone technology killing dozens of Pakistanis on regular basis.-credulous subscription to diplomatic campaigns of foreign countries GWOT,SEATO.-Alliance with America coasted far heavier than it would have in case of Russia during cold War Era.6. Terrorism-faulty foreign policy, political injustice, illiteracy and religious extremism collectively hand in hand produced the menace of terrorism that swept across Pakistan more than any other stake holder.Handing over air bases to American forces in course of post 9/11 episodes enraged Pakistani public to a huge extent.-Massacres committed by military operations in the tribal areas were initiated by US sponsorship and is continuously exacting heavy life tolls in these areas. This sets base for launching suicide bombers in order to avenge the blood of their dear ones.-Diplomatic conspiracies>unrest in Baluchistan is allegedly a master piece of us-india intrigue.- Blockade of foreign investment due to terrorism-Political Assassinations.ConclusionPakistan is in the face of these fatal challenges which are indeed killing the traits of its true independence and taming them requires a good deal of serious commitment. Her efforts to reach the status of truly independent state are on slow pace which do not guarantee immediate results.A community with a definite territory can not claim to be an independent community unless it displays its independence in true sense. Pakistan thus needs to put her on straight line by combating the certain hurdles on her way to becoming a truly independent state.
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Re: ENGLISH ESSAY FOR ALL/IMPORTANT TOPICS

Post by yousaf » Sat Oct 20, 2012 5:32 pm

GlobalizationDefinition of GlobalizationUnderstanding GlobalizationTechnology and Globalization?Globalization and Its Affects on Developing Countries• Negative integration• Positive integrationEconomic globalization • More Liquidity in Capital and Reduced Financial Risk• Economical Advantage• Interdependability between Nations• UnemploymentEffects of Globalization1. Improvement of International Trade2. Technological Progress. 3. Increasing Influence of Multinational Companies. 4. Power of the WTO, IMF, and WB5. . Greater Mobility of Human Resources across Countries6. Greater Outsourcing of Business Processes to Other Countries7. Civil SocietyAdvantages and Disadvantages of GlobalizationIntegration of Culturesglobalization and Pakistan• GLOBALIZATION AND RE-INDUSTRIALIZATION IN PAKISTAN• GROWTH RATE OF EXPORTS AND IMPORTS• GDP GROWTH RATE• GROWTH RATES OF GNP PER CAPITA• FOREIGN TRADE AND INVESTMENT LIBERALIZATION• CAPITAL FLOWS• DEGREE OF OPENNESS• AVERAGE TRENDS IN UNEMPLOYMENT• IMPACT OF WTO ON PAKISTANCONCLUSION( Globalization and the United States: Positive and Negative Impacts on American Domestic Policies)SolutionIt is always difficult to assess an essay by just going through outlines. However, there are some points, like:1. What is the difference between definition and understanding of globalization? 2. You should first discuss positive effect and after that, discuss the negative effect. (like you said firstly negative integration and then positive integration).3. In the economic effect, you are saying that "More liquidity and reduced financial risk", while in the current global recession we have have just seen the opposite of it. Although this is theoretically plausible but practically we have seen just the opposite. So this can also be a negative point which you must add in your essay.4. In the advantages and disadvantages section you only mentioned one sub paragraph, while this paragraph is more important and you must add something more in this section.5. In the last section you have just duplicated some points, like, growth rates of GDP and GNP per capita capture almost the same effect. While other points like, Degree of openness, growth rates of exports and imports and foreign trade and investment liberalization, seem to be much interrelated and can be covered in just one go. Like for example, globalization requires more trade and investment openness, so this is likely to increase foreign trade and FDI.6. How do you conclude your essay with the impact of globalization on US, while in the above outline you have discussed all these points for the whole world and in particular for Pakistan. I couldn't understand this logic.Overall this is a good outline, but it will be better if you come up with full essay.
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Re: ENGLISH ESSAY FOR ALL/IMPORTANT TOPICS

Post by yousaf » Sat Oct 20, 2012 5:36 pm

Essay on Globalization --------------------------------------------------------------------------------GlobalizationOutline:• Introduction.• Historical background of the concept.• Tools of globalization.• Different levels or aspects of globalization.• Negatives of globalization• Positives of globalization.• Suggestions.• Conclusion.Essay on globalizationGlobalization is an irreversible and irresistible phenomenon. It is very famous all over the world. While dilating on the subject, it is important to note that globalization not only affects us as a citizen but also as “producer-consumer in the global economy”.In the modern contemporary world, intense debate revolves around the term “globalization”, which is even today a continuous issue.Before exploring the concept, we should take a look over the different definitions of the phenomenon. Globalization can be defined as “closely interrelated integration of market in terms of goods, services and capital”. It can also be defined as “gradual erosion of boundaries between states through increased economic interdependence and interlinkages can be termed as globalization.From the above mentioned definitions, we can assume that globalization is the mutual sharing of goods, services and capital between or among states. It is also gradually making states closer and integrated. There are different theories about the beginning of the concept of globalization.Some are of the view that it started from the mid of 20th century with woods conference 1944. While the others are of the view that this concept was properly started with the establishment of W.T.O in 1995. Whatever the reality is, it is true that the pace of globalization was accelerated with World trading Organization. the main agenda of this organization was to end border and fasten the trade between the states.World bank also came in this battle of evolution of globalization and identifies three waves of globalization focusing on economic integration.1. First wave of globalization from 1854 to 1914.2. Second wave of globalization from 1945 to 1973.3. Third wave of globalization from 1973 till today.In the post 1973 era, the cold war subsided and there was a quantum leap forward in the “economic integration”. The free market economy became the guiding principal and global economy spread to the larger part of the world.There is a difference of opinion among people for beginning of the concept but nobody can deny its importance in the modern contemporary world. From now to onward, we will examine how trade, growth and poverty are interlinked and how best the benefits of globalization acquired to ameliorate threat to humanity. Presumably, solutions to such problems would then avert a backlash against globalization.Tools of globalization:There are two schools of thoughts about conjecture of globalization. First are of the view that globalization is a blessing. It is the tool of peace and prosperity. It is the harbinger of progress and prosperity. It is indispensible process in the modern contemporary world. We cannot deny its importance in our daily life from kitchen utensils to industrial machinery. One may approve or disapprove; the world is so prepared that it is unavoidable.Others are of the view that globalization is a tool of frustration. It is solely in the benefit of rich and progress and progressive. They are also of the view that globalization is a recipe of neu-colonialism. With the emergence of world trade organization and end of cold war this concept evolved. Last but not the least they are of the view that it is a theory of indirect occupation. The third tool of globalization is telecommunication. Telecom has made things possible. There was a time when kings took Six months to meet the counter part or a sovereign of another state, now communication means made it so easy that an ordinary human can talk to a person who is sitting hundreds and thousands miles away on a very cheap expense. They are always interconnected. Physical distances have been made irrelevant through these communication means. It is a first mean to exchange ideas. For example face book, one can share his ideas and in no time he will get the feedback from friends or people who are going to be affected by his idea. It is a quick way to engage into trade. Furthermore, it is also helping people to involve in political discourses. The people today are well aware of the governmental policies.It is also important to note that there are more than one billion people who are the telephone subscribers. During the decades of 1990’s the number of people using telephone were doubled after every 20 months. So we can see that how quickly people of this contemporary world are being use to of it.Moreover electronic media is another tool of globalization. We can say that media is the other way of squeezing the world into one whole. It has become the fastest way of interrelating the world. Incident happening in one part of the world can be seen in other parts of the globe through it very quickly. It is the strongest mean of knowing and believing what’s happening. It is also a tool of propaganda. In the modern world, people and states use it for their own self interest and secure support of others in their conduct. We have a recent example of Iraq war. Media played an important role in this particular war. The U.S Government propagated on media that Saddam has nuclear weapons which is the biggest threat to America himself and the whole world. Despite of the fact that 152 countries opposed him in United Nations, America attacked on Iraq under the article 52 (self defense) of the United Nations. Then again it is also important to note that it was the same media who reported that there were no nuclear weapons found in Iraq. So it has performed both the roles.The story not ends here, another important tool of globalization is internet. It is the internet which quickly and really summarized the world into a small box. Whatever you need, whatever u wish for, you can have it through internet. There are 200 million people who are using computer in their daily life and 95% of them are using personal computer. One out of every 12 is using internet. It has something for everyone. The main purposes for using internet are;• To get information.• To have access to news.• To deal in business.• To follow the modern styles.• To have recreation or entertainment. It is due to this tool of globalization that one can have access to all the things he wanted through s single click. So internet is very important tool of globalization.Moving forward, the means of transportation are also important tools of globalization. It is a blessing for everyone in this modern contemporary world as it helps in movement of goods, services and capital from one place to another. It made possible for one person to deal with another in cool and good manners. It really, enables the modern man to tackle the problems efficiently. The voyages which were of months, now summarized to hours. Aero plane has made it possible to travel from one nook of the world to the other corner in hours. Means of transportation are really helping people in development and progress. Trade between sates became the hall mark of the globalization. It has helped the world to squeeze. From the above discussion we came to know that how effectively and efficiently the tools of communication are playing their part. It is also important to note that what are the aspects of our daily human life which are to be directly or indirectly affected by globalization.Different levels or aspects of globalization:The political globalization is first that will be discussed over here. When we come across political globalization, three things quickly come in our mind.• Political organization.• International law.• Human rights.Political organization was started from the emergence of United Nation organization in 1945. It was a very noble step towards humanity. Earlier there was another organization by the name of “league of nations”. It emerged right after the end of 1st World War in 1919. The main difference between these two organizations was that the membership of “League of nations” was partial. The portfolio was almost the same. The emergence of United Nations Organization was a very noble step towards integrity of mankind. Under the article 2 of the UNO quotes “all states are equal”. It is also very important to note that the difference between the 1st World War and 2nd World War was of 20 years only and because of the UNO the 3rd World War prevented a couple of times in the history. The incidents of U2 and Cuban Missile Crises certainly stood the both super powers in front of each other. It was UNO who handled the affairs very efficiently. Any insurgency can be stopped through the platform of UNO. There is no blinking fact that the theory and practice of UNO are at daggers drawn with each other.Second thing which comes in political organization is International Law. It was broadly implemented through international court of justice (ICJ). International law symbolizes the world as globe. It prevents strong from doing any unlawful act which can harm the inferior. The international court of justice also warns the country to not do that again. International law is a very significant achievement of the world. All the issues between the countries can be settled down here relating to war prisoners, territorial issues, resources issues of neighbor/peripheral countries. International law shows world as a single entity governed by a single law, although there is a clash among theory and practice.Thirdly, human rights are no more a personal issue. It is a universal problem. Earlier human rights were not a global concern. No other state was allowed to interfere in these matters of any other state. This statement is also written in the article 2 of the UNO. Then in 1990’s, a rule was passed by UNO that if there is a violation of human rights in any part of the world the whole world or the UNO will stand against it. Furthermore it is also mentioned that culprit will be treated strictly.The aspects of globalization regarding economy are also important. The economical globalization is as important as any other. Its roots can be traced from 1944 with the emergence of I.F.I. World trading Organization was formed in 1955 and later on it transformed into GATT (general agreement on trade and tariff). The main agenda of W.T.O. was to make border irrelevant. The second main concern of this organization was to promote free movement of goods, services and capital. Another point of its concern is the free movement of labour through elimination of trade barriers which include tariffs, quotas and sub subsidies. World Trade Organization is working on same agenda. It augmented the magnitude of the trade between two countries. By its performance and effectiveness we can assume that it is the order of the day. Every state is interdependent on the other. This interdependence becomes the general norm of international politics.State welfare and development are interrelated very closely and W.T.O. paved the way for trade instead of aid. There are some other institutions like I.M.F who are playing a pivotal role for globalization. These international organizations give debts to the needy countries for their betterment and prosperity. In addition to this, the financial globalization is also an important aspect. It is the first layer of mutual borrowing. It is the hallmark of the contemporary world. Every country of the world is in some ways borrower and lender in the other way. This phenomenon creates the relationship of mutual borrowing among the states. We can take the example of U.S.A and China relations; it is a fact that United States of America is the largest borrower of China.There is a term used in this concept named “mutual friction”. Dollar ($) is the America’s national currency. It assumed the role of international currency. Wherever we are in the world and whatever we want to buy, we shall see two price tags on that particular thing. One will be in local currency and the other will be in Dollars. All the international treaties are signed under this currency. There are also some other financial institutions, like Asian Development Bank and European union, who are playing their part of act in their areas of jurisdiction and around the world.Cultural globalization is also a highlighting level of globalization. Every area of the world has its own cultural values. Through the tools of globalization e.g. media, internet, the cultural globalization is also on the rise in the modern world. McDonalds, KFC and Pizza hut are not the parts of our culture. Foods, fads and clothing patterns are parts of all cultures. The amalgamation of cultures in the modern contemporary world is defined as “acculturation”. When two cultures meet with each other and a new culture comes into existence, which is called as acculturation.This phenomenon of acculturation can only be developed when there is a mutual interaction between two cultures.Previously it was done by migration. People migrate from one place to another in search of food, shelter or better life style. In ancient times, there was no exposure to superior or inferior culture due to the lack of interaction and transportation means. In today’s our life no culture can remain in isolation. We can say that due to acculturation, a new global culture is taking place.Environmental problems are no more a personal issue. Different pollutions are no more an indigenous or local problem .it’s a worldwide phenomenon. The question is why is it a global problem? And the answer is that emission of carbon from one state would damage the atmosphere and the whole world might bear one’s wrong doing.In this regard a protocol had been signed by the name of Kyoto protocol among all the big countries except United States of America whose carbon emission is the largest in the world. • America 25% carbon emission. ( check statistics)• China 12.5% carbon emission. (check statistics please)The third number is of India. There is no use of such protocol if the American government is not willing to be part of it.Another important aspect of globalization is global migration. The global organizations promote free movement of labour and free movement of people across the borders.From 1998-2002, every year 20 million refugee people qualified for and receive UNO’s aid. For example, if war occurs in any area it will triggers the mass migration of people. As happened in Afghan war. About four million Afghani people migrated to Pakistan.Different states relax their immigration rules for their own problems. Like lack of skilled professional, they promote the migration of people as they are facing the problem of aging. By fore seeing human resource deficit, they have relaxed immigration rules.As we are discussing the aspects of globalization the next aspect is globalization of health. It has two layers. Firstly, there is a general dissemination of awareness campaigns. Under W.H.O the world was declared as “small pox free” in 1986. After that a vigorous campaign had been launched against Polio. Presently the campaign against HIV AIDs is on its peak which is funded by W.H.O.The second layer is positive as well as negative aspect of it. Like AIDs, it was confined to to a specific area of the world. Now it spread all over the world. Same is the case with Swine Flu, bird Flu and narcotics. Presently 95% of the opium is cultivated in Afghanistan. Earlier the area of Golden Triangle was on top of its cultivation.The last but not the least is educational globalization. The main factors which are involved in this globalization are:• Internet.• Visa relaxation for students.• Scholarships.Internet as discussed earlier is a very important factor in every student of the world. It is through internet that one can find the people of likewise. Through internet one can have essay on any topic or phrase. Secondly the visa relaxation for students also making it a strong factor of globalization.Although the concept of globalization is famous all over the world, like all the other things this concept also has some merits and demerits. We will discuss negatives of globalization first.Negatives of globalization: • There is a famous saying “money gets money” The first point in this discipline is that it aims at making rich the richer and poor the poorer because of its policies, it is very much in the habit of profiting the rich. The concept of free movement of services, labour and capital with the end of trade barriers (tariffs and subsidies) if these barriers removed from between and let these big multi-national companies and others to fight with the local industry, they will eat these small companies. Globalization basically creates discrimination between the poor and the rich which is a big flaw of this concept.• Another demerit of globalization is that it breeds credit based economies. The first world countries intentionally do not allow the deficit countries to stand on their feet. The third world countries are unable to run their economies by their own, so they have to open their palm in front of big crocodiles. These developed countries and organizations string conditions with that debt and don’t let the smaller countries to utilize their own resources and stand on their feet.• Prevalence of global culture means dominance of Western culture:- the West have means to promote their culture and traditions. Modern media and entertainment sources are totally influenced by the West. The younger generation fantasizes the west and is also playing totally in the hands of western culture. We do not have those tools to promote our culture and traditions. It is also important to note that Eastern and Western cultures stands for Islamic and the rest of the world. The Muslims are lacking the modern sources of interaction to the other world so globalization is totally in the lap of Western culture.• It is also important to note that it is eroding the role of nation state fastly. The concept of nation state is very important in the existence of a state. The concept of global village is eroding this nation state concept.• International relations of politics mean new-imperialism. The first world countries involve themselves in the internal affairs of the unstable countries and uses money to have the people of their own in the government. By this way, they become able to use that country for their own self interest and exploit these countries. The politicians of third world countries are not able to develop good plans for their prosperity and progress. So the developed countries and MNC’s give them aid with some conditions and in that way they control the whole country.• International law is a week law for rich and strong tool against poor. There are many examples in support of this argument. We have some in near past too. The Iraq war and to some extent the case of R. Davis. Although he was released after the settlement with the victim family. But there are some issues on which he can hold behind bars. The Israeli brutality against the unarmed Palestinians. It is also important to note that since 1991 America have used his right of veto 14 times from which 11 times he vetoed actions against Israel. International law proceeds with international court of justice and if someone goes in ICJ against any other. It has to take permission from the accused country for preceding the case. This makes it week and ill working law.• The governments respond more to the MNC’s than to the interest of their own people.Positives of globalization:-The merits of globalization are as follows:-• The first important merit of globalization is that it is a blessing of comparative adventure and interdependence. The famous saying of Aristotle “man is a social animal’ is true even today. Every state is interdependent and no state can live in isolation. History witnessing the fact that if anyone tried to live in isolation, he faced great difficulties in response. We have the examples of Sudan, South Korea. • The next thing which we discuss in the merits of it is promotion of trade instead of aid. Now the states are giving preference to trade and helping other regional and worldwide economies to stand on their feet. The aid system has certain ambiguities with it as we discussed in the demerits. Instead of being burden to the world, every state introducing free market systems.• The next blessing of globalization is that it is the era of franimies giving birth to peace. We can quote the example of United States of America and People Republic China. They are the biggest rivals in current scenario. Yet, America is the biggest lender of China. Although they have tussles but they will not fight with each other• Globalization also helps us in creating harmony among different cultures. There is nothing which the other world does not know about a specific culture. Every country has institutions to read about the other cultures. Course of Central Asian countries in G. C. University. And department of regional studies in American leading universities is the perfect examples of it. It helps us to come to know the cultures of different areas of the world.• Furthermore it is globalization which brings people very close to each other. The concept of specific language and culture for specific region is emitting from the map of the world. The harmony among the cultures is possible with the role of globalization which consequently results into peace.• It is not ended over here, the concept of globalization also helping us in recognizing the human rights. Earlier it was the sole responsibility of the state to ensure the rights of people and no one was allowed to interfere. Every state must facilitate its citizens with basic rights. It was announced by the UNO that there will be no boundary for human rights. Every child who comes in this world must enjoy all the rights• Another positive of globalization which cannot be neglected is that it is always a blessing for consumer. The competitors will lose their profit margin for attracting more and more consumer and in this way the consumer not only has lot more choices but the quality goods too. Whatever the multi nationals do, it is always a blessing for the consumer. In this way it proves to be the biggest merit of globalization for a common man. With the decrease in prices of the goods and utensils, the consumer will be able to have more on cheaper price.On the other hands it is important to note that it is bound to succeed. It is directly linked with capitalism. Capitalism is the only system prevailing in the contemporary world. We have examples in the shape of European Union; shanghai cooperation organization, SAARC, and some other regional unions are proves of its success.• The story not ends here; globalization is maximizing the wealth of the world. We are witnessing the fact that when a multi-national company goes in a region, it creates an opportunity of employment. It gives financial support for the betterment of roads and transportation. Sudan is the case study in this context. The oil, gold and gas reservoirs were giving no benefit to the people of Sudan. The multi-national companies went over there. They explored these reservoirs and now the government is receiving taxes. The people are getting more jobs, the economy is growing. It can be said that it changed the life style of the people of Sudan. • The last but not the least positive point of globalization is free movement of capital. It allows people throughout the world to run their business wherever they want. The free movement of capital is bridging gaps between the countries. Suggestions:-• Investing in human capital. Strategies for promoting economic growth and poverty reduction should be an important part of every country’s economic policy. There is a need to encourage investment through economic liberalization, privatization and reduced trade barriers. There is a need to invest in human capital, such as health and education and creating effective institutions of governance and eradicate corruption.• Democracy and economic growth are interlinked with each other. Economic growth can only be possible if there is a stable system of politics. The politicians are willing to develop their state efficiently. It can happen only when there is democratic system in the state.• Need for a new consensus. The political leaders must take choices amid debates if they intend to seize the opportunities to promote democracy and economic growth. A new approach is needed. One possible approach would be to set realistic economic goals, new guidelines for provision of international assistance and to integrate democracy building programmes into efforts to reduce poverty.• A real dialogue:- if the goal is to reduce poverty, the governments international financial institutions and civil society needs to conduct a real dialogue on how to make globalization work for the poor.• Trade policy and poverty reduction:- the trade policy should be formulated in such a way that takes into account the national strategies for poverty reduction and redistribution.• UN Recommendations:- i. Democracy and rule of law should be promoted and there should be efforts to integrate marginalized groups into mainstream.ii. There is a need to reduce inequalities in access to resources and opportunities.iii. Conditions in the informal economies should be improved by providing social protection programmes and better linkages between formal and informal economies to improve wages, benefits and working conditions of the workers in the developing countries.iv. There should be more opportunities for employment.v. Youth should be the focus of the unemployment policies.Conclusion:-The success of globalization would depend on how different actors that is governments; multinational institutions, private business and NGO’s pursue the goals, not only globally but also collectively.
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yousaf
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Re: ENGLISH ESSAY FOR ALL/IMPORTANT TOPICS

Post by yousaf » Sat Oct 20, 2012 5:43 pm

The Internal Threat Is More Dangerous Than External Threat To PakistanOUTLINE: Introduction  Internal Threats To Pakistan• Political Instability• Weak Judiciary• Feudalism• Provincialism• Extremism, Terrorism and Target Killings• Energy Crisis• Water Shortage• Poverty• Unemployment• Illiteracy• Corruption• Overpopulation External Threats To Pakistan• India• Afghanistan• US• Globalization Critical Analysis Suggestions ConclusionEssayPakistan was established in 1947. Since its inception it has been surrounded by countless internal as well as external problems. All these problems seem to have become fate of our country. Problems like poverty, illiteracy, unemployment, provincialism, Baluchistan issue, extremism, terrorism etc. are now posing a great threat to our existence. Despite being rich in natural resources we still are unable to utilize them fully and fairly. Due to underutilization of these vast resources, we are still a way behind in the race of development. Not only internal problems have kept Pakistan engaged but also external problems have always been a bolt from blue for our country. It is a fact that every country is facing problems in one form or the other. But in the case of Pakistan, owing to mismanagement, problems have been becoming incurable. It is mainly due to the mishandling of the internal issues. Our country is losing its true image. This has resulted in foreign interventions into our national affairs and has undermined our progress. The present era is the age of low intensity conflicts rather than conventional wars. So, it is extremely important to understand our internal dynamics, challenges and threats such as national integration, ethnicity, sectarianism, drug mafia, political system, bad economic conditions and economic disparities, and geographic vulnerabilities. The main internal fronts which are directly affecting the foreign policy of Pakistan are the followings; Political stability is one of the biggest threats that Pakistan has from the very beginning. No government so far could have been able to complete its term. The incompetence of our leaders has always provided the army a golden chance to topple the elected governments. Every military ruler has seized the power with countless promises to the masses. But with the passage of time, they only prolonged their rule and served their vested interests.Furthermore, judiciary has also been instrumental in providing a legal cover to the military rule in the country. It has always supported the undemocratic steps taken by the dictators under the “Doctrine of necessity”. Such a weak and incompetent judiciary has never allowed the democracy to flourish on our soil. So the absence of democracy has given birth to numerous other problems/threats.Feudalism is another threat to Pakistan’s stability. It has never allowed a sincere leadership to come to the scene. Theses voracious feudal lords have always tried to achieve their covert interests in the garb of politics. In every general election, the poor masses are forced by the feudal lords to cast votes according to their will. The suppression of the voice of the poor masses has been proving detrimental to our society.Moreover, when the issues are left unresolved they become incurable with the passage of time. Provincial hatred is the result of such negligence. This hatred has caused the separation of East Pakistan. Centre has always been reluctant to give provinces the full autonomy and right over their national resources. Sheer inequality and mismanagement of the natural resources has flared up the feelings of provincialism. With the elapse of time these feelings are sowing the seeds of secession.Provincialism has further resulted in regionalism. Lack of nationalism is another serious threat to our national integrity. Nationalism is a great binding force but here everyone instead of thinking himself as a Pakistani considers as Sindhi, Punjabi, Balochi, Pathan etc. Such individuality and bitterness among the masses is weakening our country to its roots. Religious differences such as Shia vs. Sunni are further adding fuel to the fire. Religious extremism that took its roots in Pakistan after the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979 is proving venomous for Pakistan. This religious extremism took a new shape of terrorism after 9/11. After the incident of 9/11 suicide bombing in Pakistan has become a norm of the day. Target killing is another menace which is claiming hundreds of innocent lives daily. Energy crisis is further adding to the problems of Pakistan. Energy crisis is not less than a threat. It has proved a bolt from blue for our economy. Energy keeps the wheel of the economy going on. Uninterrupted supply of electricity has become a day dream for the masses. Every sector of life has been affected by the starvation of energy in the country. Industrial sector has got a serious blow. Closure of industries and businesses is a grave threat to our survival. Our economy is suffering so seriously. In the wake of such conditions, the investors are reluctant to invest in our country/investors were already reluctant to invest in our crisis ridden country and energy crisis has prevented them further. Energy crisis is largely due to the mismanagement of water resources.Water shortage is another setback to our country. Being agricultural, our country largely depends on canal water for irrigation. But the mismanagement of water resources and Indian hegemony has caused the shortage. The role of Indus River System Authority (IRSA) has also been dismal in this regard. Furthermore, the decreasing capacity of existing dams like Tarbela and Mangla Dams due to sedimentation is also making the conditions worse.Energy crisis coupled with water crisis has severely affected the industrial and agricultural sector. People engaged in both these sectors are being left unemployed. Unemployment is leading to poverty. Poverty is a sort of curse which is making life miserable. Despite being agricultural country of ours, we are still facing food shortage. People are unable to make their both ends meet.Youth makes the major portion of our population but unfortunately it is largely unemployed. The unemployment rate touches the 12 % mark. There are many reasons of unemployment like influx of machinery that has replaced manpower, lack of new industries and defective education system. Unemployment is causing brain-drain. While the others who are unable to find any job at all indulge in nefarious activities and rate of crimes increases.Illiteracy is not less than a curse for a society. Education has been the most neglected sector in Pakistan. The fact that 50% of children do not complete their primary education testifies this fact. Uneducated adults are burden on national exchequer. Economy prospers in educated society. On the contrary, illiterate society closes the doors of prosperity. Unemployment, poverty, sectarianism, population explosion, crimes, terrorism etc. are, in one way or the other linked to illiteracy. It is also a threat to our country’s survival in this globalized world.Corruption is another major threat. It has assumed the shape of a fashion in our society. It has firmly entrenched its roots in our society. It has become the part of each and every department of government. From clerical staff to higher officers and bureaucrats, all are involved in corruption of one kind or the other. It is weakening the roots of our system. A weak system full of ills is itself is a biggest threat to the survival of the country.Growing population is becoming headache for our nation. Weak economy of ours is proving failure to cater to the needs of the growing number of people. There is a great increase in economic disparity among the masses. The poor are becoming poorer, and the rich are getting richer and richer day by day. Problems like illiteracy, unemployment, poverty are rendering the growing population a grave threat to our country.Pakistan is one of the most vulnerable states in the world. It is bordered with Afghanistan, Iran, China and India. To the south is the Arabian Sea, a gate way to CARS through Gwadar port. Pakistan’s domestic politics remains intimately linked to political relations with Pakistan’s neighbours. The geographical shape and the distributions of its population complicate the defence problem. Pakistan’s security is gravely threatened in recent era as compared to previous threats. There are a large number of issues which are a constant threat to the security of Pakistan. These include environment, narcotic trafficking, terrorism, disarmament, non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, human rights, gender issue etc. The creation of India and Pakistan gave birth to many thorny issues/problems between the neighbouring countries. Kashmir issue remains at the top of the list. Other issues like water issue, Siachen, Sir Creek, Afghanistan are now lingering over the years. Terrorism and security are the other emerging issues. Both the countries have fought three wars. Due to trust deficit, both the countries have remained at loggerheads with each other. India has remained the most threatening neighbour for Pakistan. The borders with India are always in great risks of escalation. There is always a possibility of nuclear war which can place Pakistan in a hopeless strategic position. The threat from India today is an internal as well as ranging from failed governance, mismanagement of the country’s economy to the war against terrorism. Pakistan and Afghanistan have much in common. But the relations between these two countries, bound by historical and geographical links, have not been peaceful but rather have been marked by hostility since 1947. Problems like Durand line, demand of Pashtoonistan, soviet invasion, smuggling of arms, migration of Afghans have been the biggest dilemma for Pakistan’s security. Refugees have also been threat for the law and order situation. Furthermore, it has given birth to the Taliban ideology in Pakistan, which has far-reaching consequences on Pakistan’s sovereignty. In addition to all this the incident of 9/11 also left its indelible impacts and gave rise to terrorism which has become the biggest threat to Pakistan’s survival. After the incident of 9/11, The US launched a so-called war on terror. Since then, Pakistan has been US ally in this war. This war has played havoc with Pakistan. It has claimed the lives of 35,000 innocent people and soldiers. US’ frequent unilateral actions through drones in Pakistan’s territory are a grave threat to Pakistan’s sovereignty. Pakistan’s involvement in war on terror has given the US a free licence to interfere in Pakistan’s matters. Such involvement in internal issues and policies of Pakistan is giving rise to anti-Americanism among the masses. A national consensus seems to be emerging against American involvement and attacks. In addition to all these, the wave of economic liberalization and globalization has weakened the traditional authority and control of the state in policy making options even on important matters and issues of vital interest.More than sixty years have elapsed but these sixty years and more have seen little peace. Our country has witnessed many an issues like political, social, linguistic, cultural, identity related and many more. The disturbances created by these issues are assuming greater menace than external threats. Today, we have diplomacy and different international platforms to cope with external threats. But coping with internal disturbances is becoming far more difficult. In the case of Pakistan, the internal issues have become more difficult to tackle with owing to lack of competent leadership. In turn, these issues have kept our country internally engaged and also asserted negative influence on the nation. It is a fact that there are many hurdles in running the country. But sincere leadership with proper management can do wonders. It is never too late to act. What is needed is the proper implementation of policies. Here are some suggestions to climb out of internal problems.• There should be balance between all the institutions of the country. All institutions must work within the boundary of their limit. It will ensure the proper functioning of the governmental machinery.• The centre and the federating units must develop good relation. All the thorny issues between them should be resolved with the sincerity of purpose. Grievances of the provinces must be redressed on priority basis.• Equal distribution of natural resources must be ensured. Provinces must be given right and due share over their natural resources.• Justice is indispensible to good governance. Access to cheap and quick justice should be made possible for everyone. Dispensation of justice must be irrespective of class, creed and religion.• Economic policies must be revised. They must be reformed to meet the demands of the poor masses. Agricultural and industrial sectors must be revolutionized to attract investment and boost the economy.• Cut-down of extra expenditure by down-sizing the administrative setup is the dire need of the hour. It would be greatly helpful in reducing debt burden from our country.• All the institutions responsible for maintaining accountability should be authorized. Legislation must be enacted to improve accountability. It must be started from the top. Everyone, no matter how powerful is he, must be brought to book.• Anti-corruption courts be established. All the cases of corruption must be decided on priority basis to check the wheel of corruption.• Media should be made free. Freedom of media is the real essence of good governance. Media is called the fourth pillar of the state and is instrumental in ensuring good governance.It can be concluded that Pakistan is trapped in numerous internal problems. All the problems are interlinked to one another. They have formed a vicious circle and appear again and again in one form or the other. Every government has always ignored them considering as minor. This sheer negligence from the part of our government, whether democratic or doctorial, has turned these issues into a grave threat. They have now become the biggest challenge for our country. In the wake of these challenges, Pakistan’s survival is at stake. Trapped in the shackles of internal problems our country has been unable to promote its fair image on external front. It is proving fatal and undermining our stance on internal level. Time is ripe now to address internal issues on priority basis before they go out of control. These issue, challenges and threats must seriously be considered by our policy makers. Policies, to tackle them, be made and implemented with the sincerity of purpose. Collective efforts are required on all fronts. The whole nation must join hands in hands to face them. No issue can be resolved in an overnight. A sustained effort and toil is needed in order to uproot these problems. Our intelligentsia, scholars, writers, champions, and educated strata can be instrumental in this regard. A strong Pakistan should be our first priority. If we have to make certain hard decisions for its accomplishment no one should hesitate to lead and pull the trigger. Indeed, Pakistan comes first even before our personal vested interests. Further there are some suggestions ....for improvement 1. The introduction of essay is traditional--Cliche--, you need to change it. Stick to the topic from the very beginning. Like you can write," Pakistan has been facing plethora of internal and external problems since its very foundation, amongst which the internal challenges are far more threatening and worrisome". Or The internal and external challenges have seriously threatened the very existence of Pakistan, we talk either of present or past. Amongst such challenges the internal one are far more catastrophic and worrisome. 2. Take care of grammatical mistakes. Like "Not only internal problems have kept Pakistan engaged but also external problems have always been a bolt from blue for our country". the correct one is, The internal problems not only have kept Pakistan stagnant but also ....... Secondly, don't deviate from topic as to you have to prove that effect of internal problems is more fatal and cataclysmic than the external problems. "Despite being rich in natural resources we still are unable to utilize them fully and fairly". Correct is.... we are still unable..3. Be precise.... In place of "it is a fact" use In fact, As a matter of fact, It is self-evident, Evidently, etc. For grammatical mistakes see English Practice – Learn and Practice English Online, common mistakes.4. Don't use furthermore in the third paragraph. 5. You have use the word always in all of our essay repeatedly. it shows immaturity. a sweeping statement,, for instance judiciary has not always upheld the actions of military rulers.... like present judiciary, also provincial courts at certain instances rejected the military coups.Simple way u can1. Introduction2. Elements to Know and Gauge Threats3. Internal and External Threats (their possible reasons and impacts)4. Why internal Threats need to be thwarted at first priority4.a. History (in perspective of economy, Society, culture, politics and military)5. Internal Threats in Comparison to External Forces/Threats5.a. national solidarity and Integrity5.b. Education and ideological appearance of our nation5.c. Economic threats and dependencies5.d. Bad governance5.e Corruption and malfunctioning Bureaucracy5.f Socio-cultural buildup of regions5.g. Provincial Disharmony5.h. Youth (their direction and training)5.i. Religious exploitation, Sectarianism and Terrorism5.j. Cultural Change and Societal Grievances (Role of Media, Teachers, Parents and social construction)5.i. Worshiping Merit Vs Nepotism and Favoritism5.j. Law and order situation5.k Lack of political will and lack of futuristic approaches5.l. lack of consensus and transparency6. External Pressures due to internal fissures6.a. Pressure on Policies (internal and external)6.b. Politics6.c. culture6.d. economy6.e. society6.f. miscellaneous Influences 7. Way forward and Remedies8. Conclusion
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yousaf
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Re: ENGLISH ESSAY FOR ALL/IMPORTANT TOPICS

Post by yousaf » Mon Dec 17, 2012 7:13 pm

agar kissi k pass aur out lines english esssy ha tho plz share out line

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Re: ENGLISH ESSAY FOR ALL/IMPORTANT TOPICS

Post by yasirshah » Mon Dec 17, 2012 10:44 pm

A Million Dollar work Yousaf Bhai . Plz keep it up.

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Re: ENGLISH ESSAY FOR ALL/IMPORTANT TOPICS

Post by silentshaheen » Tue Dec 18, 2012 7:05 pm

yasirshah wrote:A Million Dollar work Yousaf Bhai . Plz keep it up.
keep ot up plzzzzzzzzzzzzzz mention more topic and important for judicial exams

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Re: ENGLISH ESSAY FOR ALL/IMPORTANT TOPICS

Post by yousaf » Wed Dec 19, 2012 5:40 pm

1. rule of law2.parliamentary soverignity and independence of judiciary3. justice delayed is justice denied4.judicial policy5. fundamental rights6.democracy v/s dictatorcship7.extant freedom of speech8. judicial policy9.human rights in pakistan10. hudood ordinance11.khula12.Dishonouring cheque and lodging f.i.r13.judicial reforms14.judicial system of pakistan15. war on terrorismya topics aik dost na aik aur topic ma shere kia how tha
Last edited by yousaf on Thu Dec 20, 2012 7:58 am, edited 1 time in total.

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Joined: Wed Sep 12, 2012 6:10 am
Nationality: Pakistani

Re: ENGLISH ESSAY FOR ALL/IMPORTANT TOPICS

Post by mariyahatta » Wed Dec 19, 2012 5:55 pm

In topics pr essays bhi send kr dy @yousaf


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