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Rice is the seed of the monocot plants Oryza sativa . As a cereal grain, it is the most important staple food for a large part of the world’s human population, especially in East and South Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and the West Indies. It is the grain with the second-highest worldwide production, after maize (corn).Rice, an important food and cash crop, is the third largest crop of Pakistan after wheat and cotton. It is planted on an area of over 2.5 million ha (11% of the total cropped area) and accounts for 17% of the total cereals produced annually. The annual production of milled rice is about 5.5 million tonnes sharing 5.5% in agriculture sector and 1.1% in GDP.Rice occupies 2.5 million hectare that is 10.9% of the total cultivated area with production of 5.1 million tonnes of milled rice.Rice is normally grown as an annual plant, although in tropical areas it can survive as a perenniaL. The rice plant can grow to 1–1.8 m (3.3–5.9 ft) tall, occasionally more depending on the variety and soil fertility. The edible seed is a grain (caryopsis) 5–12 mm (0.20–0.47 in) long and 2–3 mm (0.079–0.12 in) thick.ROLE OF RICE IN PAKISTAN ECONOMYLike many other developing countries of South East Asia, agriculture is the mainstay of rural economy of Pakistan as well. Nearly two-third of the country’s population live in rural areas and an overwhelming majority of them are dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. Agriculture contributes 23 percent to national income (GDP), and employees about 50 percent of the labor force.In Pakistan’s agrarian economy rice plays multifarious roles. Firstly, it is second staple food and contributes more than 2 million tonnes to our national food requirement.Secondly, rice industry is an important source of employment and income for rural people.Thirdly, it contributes in the country’s foreign exchange exchequer. For instance, during 1999-2000 about 2 million tonnes rice of worth 26 billion rupees was exported. The barter trade on Afghanistan border was in addition to this export. The significance of this commodity in our economy is evident from the above facts. Therefore, it is imperative to focus on the efforts needed to further improve its competitiveness in the international market.CLIMATIC CONDITIONS FOR RICE IN PAKISTANIn Pakistan rice is grown under diverse climatic, hydrological and edaphic conditions and is divided into 4 distinct agroecological zones. In most of the cases critical problems in rice production and protection are specific to a particular zone. Production technology package is developed keeping in view the distinct agroecological conditions in each zones. Brief description of each zone is as follows:In Pakistan, rice is grown under diverse climatic and edaphic conditions. Basmati predominates in traditional rice tracts of Punjab (Zone II). In Swat (Zone I) at high altitude mountain valleys, cold tolerant rices are grown. In the south of NWFP, Sindh and Balochistan (Zone III and IV), IRRI type medium long grain heat tolerant tropical rices are grownZone-1. It consists of northern mountainous areas of the country and irrigated rice is grown either in flat valleys or terraced valley-sides. The climate is sub-humid monsoon with 750 to 1000 mm average rainfall, mostly concentrated in summer.Zone-2. It lies in the broad strip of land between rivers Ravi and Chenab where both canal and sub-soil water are used for irrigation. The climate is sub-humid, sub-tropical type with 400 to 700 mm of rainfall mostly in July-August.Zone-3. It consists of the large tract of land on the west bank of river Indus. It has an arid sub-tropical climate with 100 mm of average rainfall and maximum temperature higher than zone 1 and 2.Zone-4. It is the Indus delta which consists of vast spill flats and basins; the latter are mostly irrigated. The climate is arid tropical marine with no marked season and is highly suited to coarse varieties.TYPES OF RICE IN PAKISTANBASMATI RICEBasmati rice is the major type of rice in pakistan. Basmati Rice is a variety of long grain rice grown in India and Pakistan, notable for its fragrance and delicate, nuanced flavour. Its name means “the fragrant one” “the soft rice,” a”my smile”. Pakistan is the second largest producer and exporter of basmati rice after india. it is primarily grown through paddy field farming in the Punjab region.VARIETIES OF BASMATI RICEA number of varieties of basmati rice exist. Traditional types include•Basmati-370,•Basmati-385•Basmati-Ranbirsinghpura(R.S.Pura),while hybrid basmati varieties include Pusa Basmati 1 (also called ‘Todal’, because the flower has awns). Fragrant rices that are derived from basmati stock but are not considered true basmati varieties include•PB2 (also called sugandh-2),•PB3•RH-10.List of approved varietiesPunjabKernel Basmati (Pakistan), Dehradun, Safidon, Haryana, Super basmati, Kasturi (Baran, Rajasthan), Basmati 198, basmati 217, basmati 370, basmati 385, basmati 386, Bihar, Kasturi, Mahi Suganda, Pusa, Ranbir, Taraori.Some non-traditional aromatic crosses with basmati characteristics are marketed under a Sugandh designation.PAKISTANI VARIETY•PK-385 Basmati Rice•PK-386 Basmati Rice•PK-198 Basmati Rice•D-98 Basmati Rice•KS-282•Irri-9•Irri-6RICE HARVESTING AND CULTIVATIONMethods of growing differ greatly in different localities, but in most Asian countries the traditional hand methods of cultivating and harvesting rice are still practiced.The fields are prepared by plowing (typically with simple plows drawn by water buffalo), fertilizing (usually with dung or sewage), and smoothing (by dragging a log over them). The seedlings are started in seedling beds and, after 30 to 50 days, are transplanted by hand to the fields, which have been flooded by rain or river water. During the growing season, irrigation is maintained by dike-controlled canals or by hand watering. The fields are allowed to drain before cutting.CULTIVATIONMostly rice is cultivated in verious areas of our country in early summer and harvested before the arrival of winter season.Rice cultivation in our country is depend on irrigation water.Although rice is cultivated in various parts of our country, but canal irrigated areas in punjab and sindh provinces have an important position. the lahore and gujranwala district in punjab province have leading position in the production of rice and some quantity of rice is cultivated in faisalabad, multan and bahawalpur divisions.The superior quality of rice of pakistan knows as Basmati is grown in district lahore and gujranwala.Beside Punjab, sindh have also important for the production of rice in Pakistan. the district of larkana and sukhar division have important position in rice production.some quantity of rice is also grown in hyderabad division of sindh. some amount of rice is also cultivated in various area of Khebar pakhtonkha older N.W.F.P baluchistan and azad kashmir, where irrigation facilities are available.Manual harvestingIn many countries rice ears are cut by hand. A special knife is frequently used in SouthEast Asia (“ani-ani”). For instance, in the Casamance region of Senegal rice is cut stem by stem with a knife, 10 cm below the panicle so as to leave straw in the field in amounts large enough to produce grazing for cattle. Nevertheless such practice is labour intensive.Mechanized harvestingDuring past decades the mechanization of rice harvesting has rapidly evolved.The first machines used were simple animal-drawn or tractor-driven moving machines fitted with a cutter bar. The improvements made on this equipment have first resulted in the development of swathe. These drop the crop in a continuous windrow to the side of the machine making it easy to pick up the panicles and manually tie them into bundles. The next step forward has been the reaper that forms unbound sheaves; and finally the reaper/binder which has a tying device to produce sheaves bound with a twine. However the supply, cost and quality of the twine are the main problems associated with the use of such equipment.The output of these machines varies between 4 and 10 hours per hectare, which is slow. However, they may be usefully introduced into tropical rice growing areas, where hand harvesting results in great labour problems. In temperate countries they have been gradually replaced by combine harvesters.Traditional threshingThe traditional threshing of rice is generally made by hand: bunches of panicles are beaten against a hard element (eg, a wooden bar, bamboo table or stone) or with a flail. The outputs are 10g to 30kg of grain per man-hour according to the variety of rice and the method applied. Grain losses amount to 1-2%, or up to 4% when threshing is performed excessively late; some unthreshed grains can also be lost around the threshing area.In many countries in Asia and Africa, the crop is threshed by being trodden underfoot (by humans or animals); the output is 30kg to 50kg of grain per manhour. The same method, but using a vehicle (tractor or lorry) is also commonly applied.In south-east Asia, total losses induced by traditional harvesting and threshing methods are estimated between 5 and 15%.RICE AS IMPORTANT FOODIt has been estimated that half the world’s population subsists wholly or partially on rice. Ninety percent of the world crop is grown and consumed in Asia.Rice is the only major cereal crop that is primarily consumed by humans directly as harvested, and only wheat and corn are produced in comparable quantity. Brown rice has a greater food value than white, since the outer brown coatings contain the proteins and minerals; the white endosperm is chiefly carbohydrate. As a food rice is low in fat and (compared with other cereal grains) in protein. The miracle rices have grains richer in protein than the old varieties.RICE EXPORTER IN PAKISTAN•Rice Exporter Association of Pakistan (REAP)•Basmati Rice Exporter Alfarid cooperation•Al-Faizan cooperation rice exporter