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Animals included in live stock is cow, ox, buffalo, camel, goat, sheep, horses and any animal which can be domesticated. Livestock (also cattle) refers to one or more domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food, fiber and labor.Livestock generally are raised for subsistence or for profit. Raising animals (animal husbandry) is an important component of modern agriculture. It has been practiced in many cultures since the transition to farming from hunter-gather lifestyles.Livestock production is the second biggest economic activity after crop husbandry for rural population in the country. Out of 137 million people in the country, more than 92 million (67% live in the rural areas.LIVESTOCK ROLE IN PAKISTAN ECONOMYLIVESTOCK is an important sector of agriculture in Pakistan. It accounts for 39 percent of agricultural value added and about 9.4 percent of the GDP. Its net foreign exchange earnings, in 2001-02, were Its 51.5 billion, which was 12.3 percent of the overall export earnings of the country.he livestock population including buffaloes, cattle, goats, sheep, asses, camels, horses and mules, is 154.7 million heads in Pakistan (Economic Survey 2008-09).The Cholistan desert, spread over districts of Bahawalnagar, Bahawalpur and Rahim Yar Khan, has 6.655 million acres of land which besides increasing grain production also offers a big opportunity for enhancing the country’s meat and milk production.The role of LIVESTOCK can be judged from the fact that about 35 million people are engaged in raising 2 to 3 cattle/buffaloes and 5 to 6 sheeps/goats in their backyards and are deriving 20 to 25 percent income from it.The LIVESTOCK, include cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, camels, horses, asses and mules. During the last five years, the combined population of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat increased from 113 million, 1998-99, to 125 million, 2002-03, depicting a total increase of 12 million or 24 lac heads per annum.In the year 2002-03, the domestic live stock population was estimated at 23.3 million cattle, 24.8 million buffalo, 24.6 million sheep and 52.8 million goats. During 1998-03, maximum increase was in the population of goats, showing an increase of 70 lac heads or 14 lac heads per annum.During this period, production of beef increased from 963 to 1060 thousand tons and mutton from 633 to702 thousand tonnes. This shows that the total increase in beef production was 97,000 tonnes or 15.4 thousand tonnes p.a., and mutton 69,000 tonnes or 14,000 tonnes.LIVESTOCK FLOW DOWN MARKETRecently the authorities in many cities of the Punjab have expelled animals from the urban areas to keep the cities clean and solve the sewerage problem. This step has changed the milk production system in urban localities and has put more pressure in pre-urban animal production system by increasing the concentration of animals in suburb localities. This concentration has definitely affected the available animal feed resource maximum and other related aspects viz., marketing, management and social set up. Keeping in view all these burning issues a survey project was designed to study impact of animal concentration on milk production cost, constraints, problems and shortcomings faced by small, medium and large animal raisers engaged in milk production. Twenty eight farmers (38.3%) ranked in small class while 31and 16 farmers (43.3% and 18.3%) were medium and large respectively.ANIMAL FODDERFodder crops are the cheapest source of feed for livestock and shortage of fodder production is main limiting factor for its development in the country. The deficit estimate variously is 15-30 percent of the requirement in terms of nutrients. The shortage is larger if expressed in terms of digestible protein.It includes hay, straw, silage, compressed and pelleted feeds, oils and mixed rations, and also sprouted grains and legumes.CONSTRAINTSThe major constraints being faced by the farmers in the livestock enterprise were fodder, concentrate feeds, land, health, marketing, animal purchase, training and credit. One of the major problems was shortage of fodder and insufficient land faced by different classes. Small and medium classes did not have sufficient land to cultivate their own fodder, while the large farmers, who were having sufficient land, were more interested in cash crop growing and the livestock enterprise did not rank high in their priorities. The analysis of constraints revealed that 67% and 14.3% of small farmers perceived fodder and land to be major constraints, compared with 52% and 14.8% by medium farmers and 28% and 13.2% by large farmer classes respectively. The single dairy animal raising was another problem as it increased the cost of milk production (less profit) and made the dairy farming discouraging. Moreover farmers keeping dairy cattle along with dairy buffalo were in a better business proposition and produced milk around the year. Therefore most of them were having lactating animals and were able to continue milk production and sale.MAJOR USES OF LIVESTOCK ANIMALSThough there is no end of uses and benefits of livestock farming major ones are using skins and hair of several animals to prepare household items besides procuring nutrients. Many of these livestock organs are best used to prepare medicines like their use in insulin or other medicine manufacturing. Buttons, combs, glues and knives we use as daily items are prepared from hoofs and horns that come from the livestock farms. Milk and its products are the major production of live stock animal.VARIOUS BREED OF LIVESTOCK ANIMALS IN PAKISTANVarious breed of sheep in Pakistan•Balkhi•Balochi•Bibrik•Buchi (Bahawalpuri)•Cholistani (Khadali)•Damani•Dumbi•Gojal•Harnai (Dumari)•Hashtnagri•Kachhi•Kaghani•Kail•Kajli•Kali•Kohai Ghizer•Kooka•Lohi (Parkanni, Lamocher)•Michni•Pahari•Poonchi•Rakhshani•Salt Range (Latti)•Sipli•Thalli•Tirahi (Afridi)•Waziri•BaltistaniProvince-wise distribution of breeds.•Balochistan (4): Balochi, Bibrik, Harnai and Rakhshani.•Khebar pakhtonkha (7): Balkhi, Damani, Hashtnagri, Kaghani, Michni, Tirahi and Waziri.•Punjab (7): Buchi, Cholistani, Kajli, Lohi, Salt Range, Sipli and Thalli.•Sindh (3): Dumbi, Kachhi and Kooka.•NAs (3): Baltistani, Gojal and Kohai Ghizer.•AJK (4): Kail, Kali, Pahari and Poonchi.VARIOUS BREED OF GOAT IN PAKISTAN•Baltistani•Barbari (Bari)•Beetal•Beiari (Chamber)•Buchi•Bugri, Bujri (Bagitoori or Bugi Toori))•Chappar (Kohistani or Jabli, Jablu)•Damani•Dera Din Panah•Gaddi•Jarakheil•Jattal (Desi)•Jattan (Dhattan)•Kaghani•Kail•Kajli (Pahari)•Kamori•Khurrasani•Kohai Ghizer•Kooti•Kurri•Labri•Lehri•Lohri•Nachi (Bikaneri)•Pateri•Piamiri•Pothohari•Shurri•Sindh Desi•Tapri (Lappi)•Teddy•Tharki (Tharri)Province-wise distribution of breeds.•Balochistan (3): Kajli, Khurrasani and Lehri.•NWFP (3): Damani, Gaddi and Kaghani.•Punjab (4): Beetal, Dera Din Panah, Nachi and Teddy.•Sindh (11): Barbari, Bugri, Chapper, Jattan, Kamori, Kurri, Lohri, Pateri, Sindh Desi, Tapri and Tharki.•NAs (5): Baltistani, Jarakheil, Kohai Ghizer, Labri and Piamiri.•AJK (7): Beiari, Buchi, Jattal, Kail, Kooti, Pothohari and Shurri.GOVERNMENT FRAMEWORK ON LIVE STOCK MARKETDisease Surveillance1. Animal Disease surveillance, prevention & controlAnimals are prone to some sort of disease, at any stage of their life. Disease like foot and mouth, diarrhea and digestive disorders are very common in animals, which affect the productivity of the LIVESTOCK2. Establish disease free zonesProduction Enhancement•Milk and meat production•Support private sector in breed development•Network extension servicesSupport Services•Insemination & curative services•Research & development•Affordable credit & access to marketPrivate Sector Development1.Encourage feed & vaccine production in private sector2.Induce private initiative in government livestock farms, SPUs, feed & vaccine production3.Institute enabling regulatory regimeProduct Management•Support value addition/processing•Standards for dairy & meat products•Food safety & securityWork Done•Cholistan Livestock Development•Chief Minister’s Package for Small Livestock Farmers•Conservation & Propagation of Local Breeds•Interactive with Livestock Farmers•Services at the Farmer’s Door Step•6th Asian Buffalo CongressWork in progress1.Enhancing Beef Production2.Cattle Market & Exhibition Center (Pattoki)3.Legislative Review.4.Milk Marketing Chain5.Business Development / Collaborations6.Human Resource Development7.Women in Livestock8.Disease Surveillance & Reporting9.Public Private Partnership in Breeding Services10.DFID Funded Programme