Headmaster notes and past paper

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rock87
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Re: Headmaster notes and past paper

Post by rock87 » Wed Feb 13, 2013 6:24 am

please re-post all these notes


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Re: Headmaster notes and past paper

Post by mubarrah » Thu May 09, 2013 11:51 am

First world conference on muslim education: it was held at makkah b/w 31 march and 8 april 1977.the theme was "basis for an islamic education system"
second conference: it was held at Islamabad, Pakistan b/w 15th and 20th of march 1980. The basis theme was "design curricula for different ladders of education"
Third conference: it was held at Dhaka Bangladesh b/w 15th and 11th march 1981.the basic theme was "textbooks development"
Fourth conference: it was held at Jakarta, Indonesia. The basic theme was "islamic methods of teaching"

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Re: Headmaster notes and past paper

Post by mubarrah » Thu May 09, 2013 12:20 pm

Normal school:according to oxford english dictionary, normal schools in the US and Canada trained primary school teachers. Pestalozzi (born in zurich, switzdrland) conducted a residential and teacher training school at Burgford from 1800 to 1804.

Kindergarten ( KG school): it is a school or class for young childrem usually b/w the ages of 4 and 6 years, immediatdly before the being formal education.in 1837 Friedrich Froeble ( german) established the 1st KG school.

Montessori's school of handicapped children: this method was initiated by Maria Montessori (italian physician and educationist) in 1952. The method she employed was experimental.this is concerned with educating young children by nature in school in order to meet the real needs of chidren.

Common school and Normal school: Horace Mann established this school.he is known "the father of american education". he was an american education reformer.
He developed the special training colleges that he called normal school.main purposes were (1) prepare skilled teachers (2) eliminate unfit teachers.

Laboratory school (lab school): it was founded by John Dewey ( american philosopher, psychologist and educator) in 1896 in the hyde park neighbourhood of chicago.the school began as a progressive institution that goes from nursery school through 12th grade.it was based on principles of hands on learning and exploration.it opposed authoritarian methods in teaching.

Dalton school/Dalton plan: originally called the children's university school, is a private uni prepapatory school in the New York City.it was founded by Helen Parkhust( american educator) in 1919.its is not particularly method of teaching but a method of organising school work to promote purposive self activity.

Comprehensive School/Pilnt schools schemer: first comprehensive school, Multan was established in 1966 with collaboration of U.S.A. Such schls were opened at each district headquarter around the Pakistan. Pilot schools are known as Charter school.
The charter school idea was originated by Ray Budd ( u.s professor at the uni of Massachusetts)

rajkumari
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Re: Headmaster notes and past paper

Post by rajkumari » Fri May 10, 2013 12:17 pm

it is plint schools or pilot schools?

mubarrah
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Re: Headmaster notes and past paper

Post by mubarrah » Sun May 12, 2013 9:56 am

rajkumari wrote:it is plint schools or pilot schools?
its pilot school


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Re: Headmaster notes and past paper

Post by mubarrah » Sun May 12, 2013 10:04 am

Sampling: is a process of selecting a number of individual for a study in such a way that the individuals represent the larger group from which they were selected.

Types of Sampling
(1) Probability Sampling: it is that in which the sample is selected in such a way that every individual of a population has known chance/probability of being included in sample. ( random selection)

(2) Non Probabilhty Sampling: in this sampling it is not possible to specify the probability or chance that each member of a population has of being selected for the sample

Types of Probability Sampling

1: Random Sampling: in which all individuals in the defined population have an equal chance of selection.

2: Stratified Sampling: representation of same proportion of individuals in a sample as they exist in population".

3: Cluster Sampling: sampling in which groups rather than individuals are selected.

4: Systematic Sampling: sampling in which individuals are selected from a list at specific interval/sequence.


Types of Non Probability Sampling

1: Convenience Sampling: it involves people who are available, volunteer, or can be easily recruited. It is also referred as accidental sampling/ haphazard sampling.

2:Quota Sampling: when listing of population is not possible, interviews are given from exact number of quotas from persons of varying character. In which researcher determines the appropriate sample sizes for the groups identified as important, and then taking convenience samples from those groups.

3:Purposive Sampling: sampling that involves selecting a convenience sample from a population with a specific set of characteristics for research study.

4: Snowball Sampling: sampling in which the researcher ask the research participants to identify other potential research participants.

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Re: Headmaster notes and past paper

Post by mubarrah » Sun May 12, 2013 10:12 am

Measurement Scales
there are 4 types of measurement scales. These are categorized by Stevens.

(1) Nominal Scale
(2) Ordinal Scale
(3) Interval Scale
(4) Ratio Scale

Nominal Scale: these scales represent the lowest level of measurement. These scales simply classify persons, objects into two or more categories. Members of a category have atleast one common characteristic, variable which involve in a category include.
> sex (male/female)
> types of schools (public/private)

Ordinal Scale: ordinal scales not only classify persons or objecs, they also rank them in terms of the degree to which they possess the characteristics of interest. This scale put persons or objects in order from " highest to lowest" or from " most to least ".

Interval Scale: interval scales have all the characteristics of nominal scales but also have equal intervals. Most of the tests used in educational research such as achievement, aptitude test, attitude test are treated as interval scales.


Ratio Scale: a ratio scale represent the highest most precise level of measurement. A ratio scale has all the advantages of the other type of scales and in addition it has meaningful, true zero point.

Height, weight, time and distance and speed are examples of ratio scale. Ahmed is tall and Saleem is short ( nominal scale)
Ahmed is tall than Saleem ( ordinal scale)
Ahmed is 7 feet tall and Saleem is 5 feet tall (interval scale)

mubarrah
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Re: Headmaster notes and past paper

Post by mubarrah » Sun May 12, 2013 10:19 am

Classification of Educational Research: it may be classified under two categories

(A) Types by Purpose

1- Basic Research: it is concerned with development and refinement of theories.it is conducted in labs and uses animals rather than human beings as subjects.

2- Applied Reserch: it is concerned with the applying or testing of theories and evaluating its usefulness in solving educational problems. It is conducted in the field under natural setting. And uses humans as subjects rather than animals. It is conducted by educationists.

3- Action Research: it is concerned with solving practical problems through the application of scientific method. It is conducted in one or many classrooms and uses pupils as subjects. It is conducted by the teachers.


(B) Types by Method

1- Historical Research: it is concerned with studying, understanding and explaining events of past. Therd are 4 types of historical research (a) bibliographic research(b) legal research(c) research on history of idea (d) research on history of institutions and organizations.

2-Descriptive Research: it is concerned with describing the current status of a phenomena or subject of study. There are 2 types of descriptive research (a) simple descriptive (b) comparative descriptive.
The minimum sample size in descriptive research is 20% of the population.

3-Experimental Research: in this research the effect of independent variable on dependent variable is studied while controlling relevant/extraneous variables.it involves manipulation of at least one independent variable. The minimum size of a sample in experimental research is 15 per group.


4-Casual Comparative Research: casual comparative or ex post facto, research is that research in which the researcher attempts to determine the cause or reason, for existing difference in the behaviour of individuals. The basic casual comparative approach involves starting with an effect and seeking possible causes. It attempts to identify cause and effect relationship.Independent variable is not manipulated in this research.

5-Correlation Research: it involves collecting data in order to determine whether and to what degree, a relationship exists b/w two or more quantifiable variables. Degree of relatioship is expressed as a correlation coefficient. 30 subjects are generally considered to be a minimally acceptable sample size in this research.

DilshadKausar
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Re: Headmaster notes and past paper

Post by DilshadKausar » Sun May 12, 2013 2:57 pm

a really appreciative effort carry on..............

mubarrah
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Re: Headmaster notes and past paper

Post by mubarrah » Sat May 18, 2013 9:32 pm

Methods of Teaching

(1) Recitation Method: This is the most powerful technique for imprinting material on the mind and moving to longer term memory. A recitation is a discussion carried by a teaching assistant (TA) to supplement a lecture given by a senior faculty at an academic institution. During the recitation, TAs will review the lecture, expand on the concepts, and carry a discussion with the students. It bring you to full alertness. Cooperation is learned. Initiative is encouraged. Students are trained how to plan and report.

(2) Discussion Method: in this method a small group assembles to communicate with each other, using speaking, listening and nonverbal processes in order to achieve instructional objectives. There are group members, who have reciprocal influence over one another and they are affectdd by the behavior of one another. The participants use the available time to communicate with each other. It follows following principles of teaching (a) principle of active participation (b) principle of freedom for work (c) principle of group work and equal opportunities to ask question and to answer them.

(3) Demonstration Method: in demostration method teacher actually performs infront of students. Students observe while teacher explains the event and phenomenon. It helps in achieving psychomotor objectives. Any simple or complex skill becomes easy to understand. One of the Disadvantages is that only the attention of the learners is invited towards activity demonstarted but they are not free to discuss about it.

(4) Heuristics Method: the term Heuristics has been borrowed from the word Heurises, it means Discover or Investigate. The purpose of communication is to develop the tendency of investigation. Arm Strong is the exponent of this strategy. It is based upon the assumption of Herbert Spencer that the learner should be told as little as possible and he should be encouraged to learn himself as much as possible.
A problem is placed before the learners and they attempt to seek the solution of the problem. The learners get full freedom of working and thinking. The number of devices are used for solving the problem. It develops scientific attitude, tendency of observation, self confidence, self reliance, logical and imaginative thinking among the learner. It creates the situation for divergent thinking.
It suffers from the following limitations: it can not be used for lower classes. It is time consuming. It can not be used for dull or poor students even for higher classes. It can not be employed for a large number of students.


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